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Brief About West Tripura

West Tripura History

While Tripura as a whole lies approximately between the north latitude 22 degrees 56' and 24 degrees 32' and between longitude 91 degrees 0' and 92 degrees 20' east, the West Tripura district lies approximately between latitude 23 degrees 16' to 24 degrees 14' north and longitude 91 degrees 09' east to 91 degrees 47' east. The West Tripura District is bounded by Bangladesh in the north and west by North Tripura in the east and by South Tripura in the south. Total area of the district is 3544 sq.kms. The district headquarters is located at Agartala, which is also the capital of the State.


Tripura was a princely State. Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya was the last King. After the death of Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya in May 1947, a council of regency under the leadership of his widowed wife Maharani Kanchanpura Devi took over charge of administration on behalf of the minor prince Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya.

Monarchy came to its end on 9th September 1947. Tripura was taken as a Part-C state administered by Chief Commissioner. Tripura became a Union Territory on 1st November 1956. The Territorial Council was formed on August 15, 1959. The dissolution of Territorial Council and formation of Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers in July 1963 were notable events. Finally Tripura became a full-fledged State in January 1972. The district administration was run by one District Magistrate and Collector upto 31.8.1970. For better attention of problems of land and tenancies, for accelerating the pace of development in this backward area especially in the remote Tribal areas and for bringing the people closer to the administration Tripura was divided into three districts, viz., North Tripura District, West Tripura District and South Tripura District. Three district Magistrates and Collectors were appointed for the three districts from 1-9-1970. While it was one District Union Territory there were 10 sub-divisions. When it became a full-fledged State, the 10 sub-divisions remained the same. The West Tripura district comprises three sub-divisions viz., Khowai, Sadar and Sonamura while North Tripura District is comprises Kailashhar, Dharmanagar and kamalpur and South Tripura District comprises remaining Udaipur, Amarpur, Belonia and Sabroom sub-divisions. Out of the six principal hill ranges namely Baramura and part of Athramura fall within the district.


Main languages spoken in the district are Bengali, Kakbarak and Manipuri. Religion wise breakup of population is indicated below as per 1981 census :

Hindus : 906543
Muslims : 65552
Christians : 3143
Sikhs : 209
Buddhists : 643
Jains : 143
Other religions and
persuasioins : 14
Religion not stated : 5


Tripura was known as `Hill Tipperah' and the very much nomenclature is suggestive of its hilly nature of undulating surface made uneven by inter- sparced low hills. A series of hill ranges running north and south divide the territory into broad parallel valleys, consisting of undulating tillas (hillocks) covered with jungle with totuous streane. There are six principal hill ranges in the State increasing in height as one moves west to east (from the sumit of the ranges one has a striking view of the surroundings, a heaving monetary of evergreen landscape). Out of the six principal ranges, Baramura and Deotamura ranges and Atharamura ranges partly fall within West Tripura.

Baramura Deotomura Range : The portion of the above ranges lying in West Tripura District is the Baramura range which is almost 47 km. having the highest peak Saisum Sib (249 mtrs.)

Atharamura Range : This range starts from Amarpur Sub-division of South Tripura District and then enters into the Khowai Sub-division of WEst Tripura and runs along the border of WEst Tripura and North Tripura District. Its highest peak in the West Tripura District is Niungnanwra (481 mtrs.)

It is true that the State as a whole was, in the bygone days, far richer in forest wealth but with the increasing pressure on land through population increase has rendered this rich forest susceptible to decay, through the process of reckless falling of the trees for different reasons like settlement of landuse and jhumes in some cases and for also augmenting the revenue of the erstwhile princely State even since the past great wars. With the increase in population, the pressure on land was intensive and the tall tress of the forest had to give way to the increasing need to settling the refugees who came in exodus to this tiny state as well as for maintaining jhum cycle for the considerable percentage of Tribal who still continues to practice jhum cultivation. Without being scholarly to discuss the extent of ecological imbalances created by such indiscriminate exploitation of forest for immediate reasons, it is very much clear that the State has suffered quite heavily in the forest wealth during the past decade. The experimentation for introduction of rubber plantation, which was found suitable for the soil and climatic condition of the State has also proved to be successful and thus brightened the prospect of this sector which might go a long way in the total economic development of the State as a whole. The total area under rubber plantation has been increased to 3320.77 hectares from the experimental minimum of 5.80 hectares in 1963. The Tripura Forest Development and Plantation Corporation Limited, a public sector enterprise under the State Government have also taken intensive programme of development of rubber plantation in the whole state as well as West Tripura District.

Coffee plantation is another addition in the sector which has attained a coverage of 10183 hectares in 1981 from 2.40 hectares in 1975. Tripura, being a land locked State is having constraint in importing coal for domestic use. The extent of fire-wood supplied from forests is about 177000 cu.m. The supply of firewood from the forest is also a main source of livelihood for the population residing in the interior forest area. The quantity of timber produced from the forest as in 1980-81 is about 37204 cu.m As stated earlier, the details for the district in particular are lacking but the overall picture of the State will reflect the position as obtained in the West Tripura District.


The following rivers flow within the West Tripura districts :

Gomati : The Gomati which is the principal river is formed by the confluence of two revultes; Raimas and Sarma. The Raima originates from the Longtharai range and the Sarma from the Atharamura range and the two meet near `Dhuchaibari' in the South Eastern boundary of the South Tripura district and then assuming the name of Gomati Nadi running through gorges upto the Dumbur fall in the Amarpur sub-division. Gomati withh length of 133 kms. ( a bi river) and runs across the Amarpur and Udaipur sub-divisions of south Tripura District and Sonamura sub-division in West Tripura district and then flows towards Bangladesh by the side of Sonamura Town of WEst Tripura District. The tributaries of the Gomnati river on the right bank are Labachhara, Datakchhara, Sarbongchhara, Saugang, Patavgang and Noachhara and on the lift bank are Rambhadhachhara, Ekchhari, Chelagang, Kurmachhara, Maharanichhara and Ranigan. Khowai : Source of the river is the Longtharai range. It is 166 kms. In length and it taken its way almost towards north-western direction upto Teliamura of WEst Tripura district and then towards north till it enters into Bangladesh. Its tributaries on the right bank are Baluchhara, Jeulchhaara, Chamalachhara, Alladiachhara, Baskarachhara, Maharanichhara, Tuirupachhara, Samruchhara and Lalchhara and on the left bank are Gulechhara, Nunachhara, Kakrachhara, Brahmachhara, Sarduchhara, Trishnachhara, Gangraichhara and Solaichhara.

Howrah : It rises from the Baramura range and its tributaries are Dowaigang, Ghoramara and Debda on the right bank and Charupanadi, Dhobatilachhara and Bangeswargang on the left bank. The length of Howrah river is 53 kms. and it flows towards west and enters into Bangladesh by side of Agartala town, the capital of the State. Burigang : It rise from Baramura and flows towards west and ultimately enters into Bangladesh. There are long river valleys extending over a vast area in different sub-divisions formed mostly of deep alluvial deposits with rich fertility excellently suited for the cultivation of paddy jute, oil seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables would be evident from the aforementioned position. The source of all rivers are in Tripura itself. Due to the indiscriminate felling of trees the ecology of Tripur is being affected to a great extent, Human beings and trees belong to the category of living species. There is a gap of feeling which might be attributed to the factors of immediate benefit as the very question of subsistence is involved particularly when the majority of the people in Tripura are below poverty line. Exploitation and not extinction should be the way of life. If that be the case the forest resources which are national wealth should be preserved in such a way that they are exploited and not extinct. Else danger is inherent in expressing their displeasure. The signs of danger, are apparent when we see erosion of soils due to indiscriminate felling of trees. There is uneven rainfall. Water flows merry- go-round. It carries sands which turns into deposits causing heavy damage to fertile lands which are going to be scarce particularly when the population is increasing in geometrical progression.

Kharwar, Shri Ghanshyam Chandra
16-B, Ferozeshah Road,
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Tel. - 23315653,
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