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Brief About Visakhapatnam District
Visakhapatnam History

Visakhapatnam District is one of the North Eastern Coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh and it lies between 17o - 15' and 18o-32' Northern latitude and 18o - 54' and 83o - 30' in Eastern longitude. It is bounded on the North partly by the Orissa State and partly by Vizianagaram District, on the South by East Godavari District, on the West by Orissa State and on the East by Bay of Bengal.

Inscriptions indicate that the District was originally a part of Kalinga Kingdom subsequently conquered by the Eastern Chalukyas in the 7th Century, A.D. who ruled over it with their Head Quarters at Vengi. This District was also under the occupation of various rulers such as the Reddy Rajahs of Kondaveedu, the Gajapathis of Orissa, the Nawabs of Golkonda and the Moghal Emperor Aurangazeb through a Subedar. This territory passed on to French occupation in view of succession dispute among Andhra Kings and finally it came under the British Reign. There were no geographical graftings till 1936 in which year, consequent on the formation of Orissa State the Taluks namely Bissiom, Cuttack, Jayapore, Koraput, Malkanagiri, Naurangapur, Pottangi and Ryagada in their entirety and parts of Gunpur, Paduva and Parvathipur Taluks were transferred to Orissa State. The Visakhapatnam District was reconstituted with the remaining area and residuary portions of Ganjam District namely Sompeta, Tekkali and Srikakulam Taluks in entirety and portion of Parlakimidi, Ichchapuram, Berahmpur retained in Madras presidency. With the passage of time, the reconstituted District was found administratively unwieldy and therefore it was bifurcated into Srikakulam and Visakhapatnam districts in the year 1950. The residuary district of Visakhapatnam was further bifurcated and the Taluks of Vizianagaram, Gajapathinagaram, Srungavarapukota and portion of Bheemunipatnam Taluk were transferred to the newly created Vizianagaram District in the year 1979.

Coming to etymology of the name Visakhapatnam, tradition has it that some centuries ago a King of Andhra Dynasty encamped on the site of the present Head Quarters Town of Visakhapatnam on his piligrimage to Banaras and being pleased with the place, had built a shrine in honour of his family deity called Visakeswara to the South of the Lawsons Bay from which the district has derived its name as Visakheswarapuram which subsequently changed to Visakhapatnam. The encroachment of waves and currents of the sea supposed to have swept away the shrine into off shore area.

The District presents two distinct Geographic divisions. The strip of the land along the coast and the interior called the plains division and hilly area of the Eastern Ghats flanking it on the North and West called the Agency Division. The Agency Division consists of the hilly regions covered by the Eastern Ghats with an altitutde of about 900 metres dotted by several peaks exceeding 1200 metres. Sankaram Forest block topping with 1615 metres embraces the Mandals of Paderu, G. Madugula, Pedabayalu, Munchingput, Hukumpeta, Dumbriguda, Araku Valley, Ananthagiri, Chinthapalli, G.K. Veedhi, and Koyyuru erstwhile Paderu, Araku Valley and Chinthapalli taluks in entirety. Machkhand River which on reflow becomes Sileru, drains and waters the area in its flow and reflow and is tapped for Power Generation. The other division is the plains division with altitude no where exceeding 75 metres watered and drained by Sarada, Varaha and Thandava Rivers and revulets Meghadrigedda and Gambheeramgedda. Since no major Irrigation system exists significant sub regional agronomic variations exist in this division. Along the shore lies a series of salt and sandy swamps. The coast line is broken by a number of bald head lands, the important of them being the Dolphin's Nose which had afforded the establishment of Natural Harbour at Visakhapatnam, Rushikonda(v) Polavaram Rock and the big Narasimha Hill at Bheemunipatnam. Administratively, the District is devided into 3 Revenue Divisions and 43 Mandals.

The population of the district is 38.32 lakhs as per 2001 Census and this constituted 5.0% of the population of the state while the Geographical area of the District is 11161 Sq. KM. which is only 4.1% of the area of the State. Out of the total population 19.30 lakhs are Males and 19.02 lakhs are Females. The Sex Ratio is 985 Females per 1000 Males. The District has Density of population of 343 per Sq.Km. Agency area shows lesser Density and plain area higher density. 39.90% of the population reside in the 10 Hirarchic urban settlements while rest of the population is distributed in 3082 villages. Scheduled Castes constituted 7.82% of the population while Scheduled Tribes account for 14.55% of the population of the district. The district has a work force of 16.03 lakhs constituting about 41.83 of the population besides the marginal workers to a tune of 2.97 lakhs as per 2001 Census. The cultivators constitute 36.31% Agricultural Labourers 23.60% and the balance of 40.09% engage in Primary, Secondary and Teritory sectors as per 1991 census.

The district has differing climatic conditions in different parts of it. Near Coast the air is moist and relaxing, but gets warmer towards the interior and cools down in the hilly areas on account of elevation and vegetation. April to June are warmest months. The Temperature (at Visakhapatnam Airport) gets down with the onset of South West Monsoon and tumbles to a mean minimum of 18.8o C by December after which there is revarsal trend till the temperature reaches mean maximum of 37.4o C by the end of May during 2002-2003.

The District receives annual normal rainfall of 1202 MM., of which south-west monsoon accounts for 53.9% of the normal while North-East monsoon contributes 24.8% of the normal rainfall during 2001-2002. The rest is shared by summer showers and winter rains. Agency and inland Mandals receive larger rainfall from the Sourth West Monsoon, while Coastal Mandals get similarly larger rainfall from North-East monsoon. But both the monsoons play truant, variations of South-west monsoon accounting for 15.3% of normal and North-west monsoon to 33.2% of normal. Since the variation for most periods is on the negative side of log `Y' and since even the years of normal rainfall are characterised by long dry spells during one or more parts of the crop season, the district experiences drought conditions too often, as no major irrigation system exists to cushion the vagaries of the monsoon.