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Brief About Thiruvananthapuram District
Thiruvananthapuram city and several other places in the district, occupies an important place in ancient tradition, folklores and literature of the State. South Kerala, par ticularly Thiruvananthapuram district, had a political and cultural history in the early past, which was in some respect independent from that of the rest of Kerala. The Ays were the leading political power till the beginning of the 10th century A.D. The disappearance of the Ays, synchronised with the emergence of the rulers of Venad. In 1684, during the regency of Umayamma Rani, the English East India Company obtained a sandy piece of land at Anchuthengu (Anjengo) on the sea coast, about 32 kms north of Thiruvananthapuram city, for erecting a factory and fortifying it. The place had earlier been frequented by the Portuguese and later by the Dutch. It was from here that the English gradually extended their domain to other parts of Thiruvithamcore anglicised as Travancore. Modern history begins with Maharaja Marthanda Var ma  who reigned from 1729 to 1758 A.D and is generally regarded as the Father of modern Travancore. Thiruvananthapuram was known as a great centre of intellectual and artistic activity in those days. The accession of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal who reigned from 1829 to 1847 A.D., ushered in an epoch of cultural progress and economic prosperity. The beginning of English education was marked in 1834 by the opening of an English school at Thiruvananthapuram. An observatory and a charity hospital were also established here in 1836. During the reign of Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal (1860-1880), a fulfledged Arts College was started here besides the several English, Malayalam and Tamil schools, all over the State. A large hospital with lying-in-facility and a lunatic asylum were also established in Thir u­vananthapuram. The University College was started in 1873. It was during the reign of Sri. Moolam Thirunal (1885­1924), that the Sanskrit College, Ayur veda College, Law College and a second grade College for Women were started here. A department for the preservation and publication of oriental manuscripts was also established.

One of the significant aspects associated with Maharaja Sree Moolam Thirunal’s reign was the inauguration of the Legislative Council in 1888. This was the first legislative chamber, instituted in an Indian State. The Sri. Moolam Assembly came into being in 1904. The activities of the Indian National Congress echoed in Thiruvananthapuram and other parts of Kerala during the reign of Maharaja Sree Moolam Thirunal. A political conference of the Congress was held in the city under the presidency of Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramaiah, in 1938. The period of Maharaja Sri. Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma who took the reigns of administration in 1931, witnessed many-sided progress. The promulgation of the Temple Entry Proclamation (1936) was an act that underlined social emanicipation. In 1937, a separate University for Travancore was started. This was later re­designated as the University of Kerala, following the formation of the State of Kerala in 1956. With the accession of Travancore to the Indian Union after Independence, the policy of the State Government as well as the political atmosphere underwent radical changes. The first popular ministry headed by Sri. Pattom A. Thanu Pillai was installed in office on 24th March,  1948.

Consequent to the recommendations of the State Reorganisation Commission, the four southern taluks of Thovala, Agastheewaram, Kalkulam and Vilavancode were merged with Tamil Nadu and the State of Kerala came into being on 1st November, 1956.


Thiruvananthapuram, the southern most district of Kerala State is situated between north latitudes 8o 17’ and 8o 54’ and east longitudes 76o 41’ and 77o 17’. The southern most extremity, Kaliyikkavila, is only 54 kms away from Kanyakumari (Cape Comarin), the land’s end of India. The district stretches 78 kms. along the shores of the Arabian sea on the west, Kollam district lies on the north with Thirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu on the east and the south respectively. The district can be divided into three geographical regions; highlands, midlands and lowlands. Chirayinkeezhu and Thiruvananthapuram taluks lie in the midland and lowland regions, while Nedumangad taluk lies in midland and highland regions and Neyyattinkara taluk stretches over all the three regions. The highland region on the east and north-east comprises of the mountains of the Western Ghats and this area is ideal for major cash crop plantations like rubber, tea, cardamom and other spices. Timber trees like teak, veetty (rose wood), etc are grown in this region. The midland region, lying between the Western Ghats and the lowlands, is made up of small and tiny hills and valleys. This is an area of intense agricultural activity. This region is rich in produces like paddy, tapioca, spices and cashew. The lowland is comparatively narrow, comprising of rivers, deltas and seashore. This area is densely covered with coconut palms. The Ghats maintain an average elevation of 814 meters and Agastyakoodam, the southern most peak in the Ghats, is 1869 meters above sea level. It figures in the popular mythology connected with Agastyamuni, the sage. Mookkunnimala near Thiruvananthapuram (1074 meters) is an important health resort in the district.

The large forest reserves favourably affect the climate and induce rain Cold weather is experienced in the mountain ranges whereas lower down, the weather is bracing and in the plains, it is generally hot. Though the mean maximum temperature is only around 900F, it is oppressive in the moisture-laden atmosphere of the plains. Humidity is high and rises to about 90 per cent during the south-west monsoon. The average rainfall is around 150 cms per annum. It is significant that the district gets rainfall both from the south-west and the north-east monsoons. The south-west monsoon starts by the end of May/beginning of June, and fades out by September, while the north-east monsoon commences in October. Dry weather sets in by the end of December. December, January and February are the coolest months of the year, March, April and May are generally hot. During the months of April and May, the mean daily maximum temperature rises upto 35.20 celsius and during December-January, it sometimes goes down to 18.00 Celsius.