Highly-resistant E. coli as a Common Cause of Paediatric Diarrhoea in India
It is well-documented that diarrhoea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children. UNICEF and WHO have ranked it the second-most common cause of death following closely behind pneumonia in children of aged less than five years. They also noted that India has more number of deaths (estimated 386,600 annually) due to diarrhoea than any other country in the world (1). Common causes of bacterial diarrhoea include diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC), Shigella species, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella species, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica.

UNICEF and WHO recommend the use of new formula of ORS for preventing and treating dehydration associated with paediatric diarrhoea (1). However, in our experience, it is common to prescribe antimicrobial agents to children with more severe diarrhoea and those who do not respond adequately to rehydration therapy. Rapidly-growing antimicrobial resistance is a global concern, leaving the physicians with very few choices for antimicrobials. The situation has only been worsened by production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) which renders the bacteria resistant to the penicillins, first-, second-, and third-generation cephalosporins, and aztreonam (but not the cephamycins or carbapenems) by hydrolysis of these antibiotics

E. Coli Infection
Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria normally live in the intestines of healthy people and animals. Most varieties of E. coli are harmless or cause relatively brief diarrhea. But a few particularly nasty strains, such as E. coli O157:H7, can cause severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea and vomiting. Symptoms of intestinal infection include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. More severe cases can lead to bloody diarrhea, dehydration, or even kidney failure. People with weakened immune systems, pregnant women, young children, and older adults are at increased risk for developing these complications. Most intestinal infections are caused by contaminated food or water. Proper food preparation and good hygiene can greatly decrease your chances of developing an intestinal infection.

If you develop symptoms of severe blood or kidney problems, such as anemia or kidney failure, your treatment may include:

• Careful regulation of fluids and essential minerals.

• Dialysis to filter waste products from your blood.Some people with kidney failure caused by E. coli infection require dialysis.

• Blood transfusion to treat anemia by giving you additional oxygen-rich red blood cells.

Key facts

  • Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacteria that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most E.coli strains are harmless, but some can cause serious food poisoning.
  • Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is a bacterium that can cause severe foodborne disease.
  • Primary sources of STEC outbreaks are raw or undercooked ground meat products, raw milk, and faecal contamination of vegetables.
  • In most cases, the illness is self-limiting, but it may lead to a life-threatening disease including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), especially in young children and the elderly.
  • STEC is heat-sensitive. In preparing food at home, be sure to follow basic food hygiene practices such as "cook thoroughly".
  • Following the WHO “Five keys to safer food” is a key measure to prevent infections with foodborne pathogens such as STEC.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless. Some strains however, such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), can cause severe foodborne disease. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods, such as raw or undercooked ground meat products, raw milk, and contaminated raw vegetables and sprouts.

STEC produces toxins, known as Shiga-toxins because of their similarity to the toxins produced by Shigella dysenteriae. STEC can grow in temperatures ranging from 7 °C to 50 °C, with an optimum temperature of 37 °C. Some STEC can grow in acidic foods, down to a pH of 4.4, and in foods with a minimum water activity (aW) of 0.95.

We plan to do einterviews with MBBS doctors to understand 4 things
1) Tests or questions you ask in first few meetings
2) What it means in medical terms
3) What it means in non medical terms
4) What should the patient or care takers do

We might interview Aurvedic doctors, homeopathic doctors, Yoga teachers on this health issue

Video links
What is e. coli?

E. Coli : What You Need to Know

The dangers of E. coli

What is E.Coli? What can you do to protect yourself and others?
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