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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

Earth was formed over 4.5 billion years ago.

Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times.

About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water, mostly by oceans.
The remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes, rivers and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.

Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago.

Over 99% of all species that ever lived on Earth are extinct.
Over 7.6 billion humans live on Earth; politically, the world has about 200 sovereign states.


Physical characteristics
Mean radius : 6371.0 km (3958.8 mi)
Circumference : 40075.017 km equatorial (24901.461 mi)
Surface area : 51 00 72 000 km2
14 89 40 000 km2 land (29.2%)
36 11 32 000 km2 water (70.8%)
Volume 1.08321×1012 km3
Mass 5.97237×1024 kg

Composition by volume
78.08% nitrogen , 20.95% oxygen, 0.934% argon, 0.0408% carbon dioxide
~ 1% water vapor (climate variable)