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Our plan : In 2016-18, we plan to share issue programmes of governments, corporates, NGOs, FAs... in any country with focus on Thane, other districts of India.
Our vision : Universal development Our mission : Be sustainable, promote others Our focus : Share challenges & solutions email your programmes on issues
Our vision : Universal development. Our request : email programmes (any country or any district of India) to the editor. Please donate or volunteer with communities.
Our plan : In 2016-18, we plan to share programmes of various stakeholders in many subissues in districts of India & 60 countries. Thane is our global example
Women programmes Women : Funding proposals by various stakeholders

UN's Global Issue : Women
UN support for the rights of women began with the Organization's founding Charter. Among the purposes of the UN declared in Article 1 of its Charter is “To achieve international co-operation … in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.”

Within the UN’s first year, the Economic and Social Council established its Commission on the Status of Women, as the principal global policy-making body dedicated exclusively to gender equality and advancement of women. Among its earliest accomplishments was ensuring gender neutral language in the draft Universal Declaration of Human Rights. poster of joyful woman
The landmark Declaration, adopted by the General Assembly on 10 December 1948, reaffirms that “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” and that “everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, … birth or other status.”

As the international feminist movement began to gain momentum during the 1970s, the General Assembly declared 1975 as the International Women’s Year and organized the first World Conference on Women, held in Mexico City. At the urging of the Conference, it subsequently declared the years 1976-1985 as the UN Decade for Women, and established a Voluntary Fund for Decade.

In 1979, the General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), which is often described as an International Bill of Rights for Women. In its 30 articles, the Convention explicitly defines discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination. The Convention targets culture and tradition as influential forces shaping gender roles and family relations, and it is the first human rights treaty to affirm the reproductive rights of women.

Five years after the Mexico City conference, a Second World Conference on Women was held in Copenhagen in 1980. The resulting Programme of Action called for stronger national measures to ensure women's ownership and control of property, as well as improvements in women's rights with respect to inheritance, child custody and loss of nationality.

In 1985, the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, was held convened in Nairobi. It was convened at a time when the movement for gender equality had finally gained true global recognition, and 15,000 representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) participated in a parallel NGO Forum. The event, which many described as “the birth of global feminism”. Realizing that the goals of the Mexico City Conference had not been adequately met, the 157 participating governments adopted the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies to the Year 2000. It broke ground in declaring all issues to be women’s issues.

An early result of the Nairobi Conference was the transformation of the Voluntary Fund for the UN Decade for Women into the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM, now part of UN Women).

The Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, went a step farther than the Nairobi Conference. The Beijing Platform for Action asserted women’s rights as human rights and committed to specific actions to ensure respect for those rights. According to the UN Division for Women in its review of the four World Conferences:

"The fundamental transformation that took place in Beijing was the recognition of the need to shift the focus from women to the concept of gender, recognizing that the entire structure of society, and all relations between men and women within it, had to be re-evaluated. Only by such a fundamental restructuring of society and its institutions could women be fully empowered to take their rightful place as equal partners with men in all aspects of life. This change represented a strong reaffirmation that women's rights were human rights and that gender equality was an issue of universal concern, benefiting all."
In the aftermath of the Millennium Declaration of the September 2000 Millennium Summit, gender issues were integrated in many of the subsequent Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) — and explicitly in Goal No. 3 (“Promote gender equality and empower women”) and Goal No. 5 (“Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio”). The UN system is mobilized to meet these goals.

UN Women merges four UN agencies and offices into one
On 2 July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously voted to create a single UN body tasked with accelerating progress in achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment.

UN System-wide Action Plan
(UN SWAP)

One key aspect of UN Women’s mandate is to guide the system’s coordination on gender. On 13 April 2012 a UN System-wide Action Plan (UN SWAP) on gender equality and women’s empowerment was adopted at a meeting of the United Nations Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) to be applied throughout the UN system.
Video Interview on UN SWAP with the Focal Point for Women at the UN

The new UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women – or UN Women – merged four of the world body’s agencies and offices: the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues, and the UN International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (UN-INSTRAW).

UN Women became operational on 1 January 2011.

Eliminating Violence Against Women
The UN system continues to give particular attention to the issue of violence against women. The 1993 General Assembly Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women contained “a clear and comprehensive definition of violence against women [and] a clear statement of the rights to be applied to ensure the elimination of violence against women in all its forms”. It represented “a commitment by States in respect of their responsibilities, and a commitment by the international community at large to the elimination of violence against women”.

In 2007, the theme of the International Women’s Day was “Ending Impunity for Violence against Women and Girls”. And on 25 February 2008, Mr. Ban Ki-moon launched “The Secretary-General’s Global Campaign UNiTE to End Violence Against Women”. In opening the multi-year global campaign, he called violence against women an issue that “cannot wait”. (See also Resources for Speakers)

International Women’s Day is observed on 8 March. The theme of the 2009 observance was “Women and men united to end violence against women and girls”. The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women is observed on 25 November.
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Women, Peace and Security

While women remain a minority of combatants and perpetrators of war, they increasingly suffer the greatest harm.

In contemporary conflicts, as much as 90 percent of casualties are among civilians, most of whom are women and children. Women in war-torn societies can face specific and devastating forms of sexual violence, which are sometimes deployed systematically to achieve military or political objectives.

Women are the first to be affected by infrastructure breakdown, as they struggle to keep families together and care for the wounded. And women may also be forced to turn to sexual exploitation in order to survive and support their families.

Even after conflict has ended, the impacts of sexual violence persist, including unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections and stigmatization. Widespread sexual violence itself may continue or even increase in the aftermath of conflict, as a consequence of insecurity and impunity. Coupled with discrimination and inequitable laws, sexual violence can prevent women from accessing education, becoming financially independent and from participating in governance and peacebuilding.

Moreover, women continue to be poorly represented in formal peace processes, although they contribute in many informal ways to conflict resolution. In recent peace negotiations, for which such information is available, women have represented fewer than 8 percent of participants and fewer than 3 percent of signatories, and no woman has ever been appointed chief or lead mediator in UN-sponsored peace talks. Such exclusion invariably leads to a failure to adequately address women’s concerns, such as sexual and gender-based violence, women’s rights and post-conflict accountability.

UN Security Council Resolutions
Recognizing the impact of war on women and the importance of their involvement in the peace process, in October 2000, the Security Council unanimously adopted a groundbreaking resolution on Women, Peace and Security. Resolution 1325 urged Member States to increase women’s representation at all decision-making levels for the prevention, management, and resolution of conflict. It urged the Secretary-General to appoint more women as his special representatives and envoys, and to expand women’s role and contribution in UN field-based operations.

The Council called on all actors involved in negotiating and implementing peace agreements to adopt a gender perspective. It also called on all parties to armed conflict to take special measures to protect women and girls from gender-based violence and all other forms of violence that occur in situations of armed conflict. These recommendations were further developed in Resolution 1820 (2008) and Resolutions 1888 and 1889 (2009). In October 2010 the UN Security Council marked the 10th anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325.

In June 2012, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced the appointment of Zainab Hawa Bangura of Sierra Leone as his Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict. Ms. Bangura replaced Margot Wallström, who was the first to serve in this position, which was created in February 2010.

On 18 October 2013, the UN Security Council demonstrated renewed determination to put women’s leadership at the centre of all efforts to resolve conflict and promote peace. By unanimous vote, the Council adopted a resolution 2122 that sets in place stronger measures to enable women to participate in conflict resolution and recovery. These measures include: the development and deployment of technical expertise for peacekeeping missions and UN mediation teams supporting peace talks; improved access to timely information and analysis on the impact of conflict on women and women’s participation in conflict resolution in reports and briefings to the Council; and strengthened commitments to consult as well as include women directly in peace talks.
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WHO : Women's health
Being a man or a woman has a significant impact on health, as a result of both biological and gender-related differences. The health of women and girls is of particular concern because, in many societies, they are disadvantaged by discrimination rooted in sociocultural factors. For example, women and girls face increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.

Some of the sociocultural factors that prevent women and girls to benefit from quality health services and attaining the best possible level of health include:

unequal power relationships between men and women;
social norms that decrease education and paid employment opportunities;
an exclusive focus on women’s reproductive roles; and
potential or actual experience of physical, sexual and emotional violence.
While poverty is an important barrier to positive health outcomes for both men and women, poverty tends to yield a higher burden on women and girls’ health due to, for example, feeding practices (malnutrition) and use of unsafe cooking fuels (COPD).
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WHO : Key facts

Worldwide, women live an average four years longer than men.
In 2011, women's life expectancy at birth was more than 80 years in 46 countries, but only 58 years in the WHO African Region.
Girls are far more likely than boys to suffer sexual abuse.
Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among adolescent girls in high- and upper-middle-income countries.
Almost all (99%) of the approximate 287 000 maternal deaths every year occur in developing countries.
Globally, cardiovascular disease, often thought to be a "male" problem, is the number one killer of women.
Breast cancer is the leading cancer killer among women aged 20–59 years worldwide.
Infancy and childhood (0-9 years)
Both death rates and the causes of death are similar for boys and girls during infancy and childhood. Prematurity, birth asphyxia and infections are the main causes of death during the first month of life, which is the time of life when the risk of death is the highest.

Pneumonia, prematurity, birth asphyxia and diarrhoea are the main causes of death during the first five years of life. Malnutrition is a major contributing factor in 45% of deaths in children aged less than 5 years.

Adolescent girls (10-19 years)
Mental health and injuries
Self-inflicted injuries, road traffic injuries and drowning are among the main causes of death worldwide in adolescent girls.

Depressive disorders and – in adolescents aged 15-19 years, schizophrenia – are leading causes of ill health.

HIV/AIDS
In 2011, about 820 000 women and men aged 15-24 were newly infected with HIV in low- and middle-income countries; more than 60% of them were women.

Globally, adolescent girls and young women (15-24 years) are twice as likely to be at risk of HIV infection compared to boys and young men in the same age group. This higher risk of HIV is associated with unsafe and often unwanted and forced sexual activity.

Adolescent pregnancy
Early childbearing increases risks for both mothers and their newborns. Although progress has been made in reducing the birth rate among adolescents, more than 15 million of the 135 million live births worldwide are among girls aged 15-19 years.

Pregnant adolescents are more likely than adults to have unsafe abortions. An estimated three million unsafe abortions occur globally every year among girls aged 15-19 years. Unsafe abortions contribute substantially to lasting health problems and maternal deaths. Complications from pregnancy and childbirth are an important cause of death among girls aged 15–19 in low- and middle-income countries.

Substance use
Adolescent girls are increasingly using tobacco and alcohol, which risks compromising their health, particularly in later life. In some places girls are using tobacco and alcohol nearly as much as boys. For example, in the WHO Region of the Americas, 23% of boys and 21% of girls aged 13-15 reported that they used tobacco in the previous month.

Nutrition
In 21 out of 41 countries with data, more than one third of girls aged 15-19 years are anaemic. Anaemia, most commonly iron-deficiency anaemia, increases the risk of haemorrhage and sepsis during childbirth. It causes cognitive and physical deficits in young children and reduces productivity in adults. Women and girls are most vulnerable to anaemia due to insufficient iron in their diets, menstrual blood loss and periods of rapid growth.

Reproductive age (15-44 years) and adult women (20-59 years)
HIV/AIDS
For women aged 15-44 years, HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death worldwide, with unsafe sex being the main risk factor in developing countries. Biological factors, lack of access to information and health services, economic vulnerability and unequal power in sexual relations expose women, particularly young women, to HIV infection.

Maternal health
Maternal deaths are the second biggest killer of women of reproductive age. Every year, approximately 287 000 women die due to complications in pregnancy and childbirth, 99% of them are in developing countries.

Despite the increase in contraceptive use over the past 30 years, many women in all regions still do not have access to modern contraceptive methods. For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, one in four women who wish to delay or stop childbearing does not use any family planning method.

Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is often linked to HIV infection and is among the five leading causes of death, in low-income countries, among women of reproductive age and among adult women aged 20–59 years.

Injuries
Both self-inflicted injuries and road injuries figure among the top 10 causes of death among adult women (20-59 years) globally. In the WHO South-East Asia Region, burns are among the top 10 leading causes of death among women aged 15–44. Women suffer significantly more fire-related injuries and deaths than men, due to cooking accidents or as the result of intimate partner and family violence.

Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, with all cases linked to a sexually transmitted genital infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Due to poor access to screening and treatment services, more than 90% of deaths occur in women living in low- and middle- income countries.

Violence
Violence against women is widespread around the world. Recent figures indicate that 35% of women worldwide have experienced either intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime. On average, 30% of women who have been in a relationship experienced some form of physical or sexual violence by their partner.

Globally, as many as 38% of murders of women are committed by an intimate partner.

Women who have been physically or sexually abused have higher rates of mental ill-health, unintended pregnancies, abortions and miscarriages than non-abused women. Women exposed to partner violence are twice as likely to be depressed, almost twice as likely to have alcohol use disorders, and 1.5 times more likely to have HIV or another sexually transmitted infection. 42% of them have experienced injuries as a result. Increasingly in many conflicts, sexual violence is also used as a tactic of war.

Depression and suicide
Women are more susceptible to depression and anxiety than men. Depression is the leading cause of disease burden for women in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Depression following childbirth, affects 20% of mothers in low- and lower-middle-income countries, which is even higher than previous reports from high-income countries.

Every year, an estimated 800 000 people die from suicide globally, the majority being men. However, there are exceptions, for instance in China where the suicide rate in rural areas is higher among women than men. Attempted suicide, which exceeds suicide by up to 20 times, is generally more frequent among women than men and causes an unrecognized burden of disability. At the same time, attempted suicide is an important risk factor for death from suicide and shows the need for appropriate health services for this group.

Disabilities
Disability – which affects 15% of the world’s population – is more common among women than men. Women with disabilities have poorer health outcomes, lower education achievements, less economic participation and higher rates of poverty than women without disabilities. Adult women with disabilities are at least 1.5 times more likely to be a victim of violence than those without a disability.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Tobacco use and the burning of solid fuels for cooking are the primary risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – a life-threatening lung disease – in women. One third of all of the COPD deaths and disease burden in women is caused by exposure to indoor smoke from cooking with open fires or inefficient stoves.

Older women (60 years and over)
Globally, men slightly outnumber women but, as women tend to live longer than men, they represent a higher proportion of older adults: 54% of people 60 years of age and older are women, a proportion that rises to almost 60% at age 75 and older, and to 70% at age 90 and older.

Noncommunicable diseases
Noncommunicable diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and cancers, are the biggest causes of death among older women, regardless of the level of economic development of the country in which they live. Cardiovascular diseases account for 46% of older women’s deaths globally, while a further 14% of deaths are caused by cancers – mainly cancers of the lung, breast, colon and stomach. Chronic respiratory conditions, mainly COPD, cause another 9% of older women’s deaths.

Many of the health problems faced by women in older age are the result of exposure to risk factors in adolescence and adulthood, such as smoking, sedentary lifestyles and unhealthy diets.

Disability
Other health problems experienced by older women that decrease physical and cognitive functioning include poor vision (including cataracts), hearing loss, arthritis, depression and dementia. Although men also suffer from these conditions, in many countries women are less likely to receive treatment or supportive aids than men.

Older women experience more disability than men, reflecting broader determinants of health such as:

inequities in norms and policies that disadvantage women;
changing household structures; and
higher rates of unpaid or informal sector work.
These factors combine to increase vulnerabilities, and reduce access to needed and effective health services.
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