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A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Born on 5 October 1931 Died at age 83 Died on 27 July 2015
Born on 15th October 1931 at Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu, Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, specialized in Aeronautical Engineering from Madras Institute of Technology. Dr. Kalam made significant contribution as Project Director to develop India's first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully injected the Rohini satellite in the near earth orbit in July 1980 and made India an exclusive member of Space Club. He was responsible for the evolution of ISRO's launch vehicle programme, particularly the PSLV configuration. After working for two decades in ISRO and mastering launch vehicle technologies, Dr. Kalam took up the responsibility of developing Indigenous Guided Missiles at Defence Research and Development Organisation as the Chief Executive of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). He was responsible for the development and operationalisation of AGNI and PRITHVI Missiles and for building indigenous capability in critical technologies through networking of multiple institutions. He was the Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister and Secretary, Department of Defence Research & Development from July 1992 to December 1999. During this period he led to the weaponisation of strategic missile systems and the Pokhran-II nuclear tests in collaboration with Department of Atomic Energy, which made India a nuclear weapon State. He also gave thrust to self-reliance in defence systems by progressing multiple development tasks and mission projects such as Light Combat Aircraft.

As Chairman of Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) and as an eminent scientist, he led the country with the help of 500 experts to arrive at Technology Vision 2020 giving a road map for transforming India from the present developing status to a developed nation. Dr. Kalam has served as the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India, in the rank of Cabinet Minister, from November 1999 to November 2001 and was responsible for evolving policies, strategies and missions for many development applications. Dr. Kalam was also the Chairman, Ex-officio, of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet (SAC-C) and piloted India Millennium Mission 2020.

Dr. Kalam took up academic pursuit as Professor, Technology & Societal Transformation at Anna University, Chennai from November 2001 and was involved in teaching and research tasks. Above all he took up a mission to ignite the young minds for national development by meeting high school students across the country.

In his literary pursuit four of Dr. Kalam's books - "Wings of Fire", "India 2020 - A Vision for the New Millennium", "My journey" and "Ignited Minds - Unleashing the power within India" have become household names in India and among the Indian nationals abroad. These books have been translated in many Indian languages.

Dr. Kalam is one of the most distinguished scientists of India with the unique honour of receiving honorary doctorates from 30 universities and institutions. He has been awarded the coveted civilian awards - Padma Bhushan (1981) and Padma Vibhushan (1990) and the highest civilian award Bharat Ratna (1997). He is a recipient of several other awards and Fellow of many professional institutions.

Dr. Kalam became the 11th President of India on 25th July 2002. His focus is on transforming India into a developed nation by 2020.
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Note
One day there was a call on the mobile of our cofounder. The number was not seen (private numbers are many times not seen). Someone said Dr Kalam liked your dream of India to be a developed nation by 2020 (we had done a website for villages of India then). When he can talk to you. Our cofounder said, it is great to talk to him anytime, even now. Then he said talk to him and gave the phone to Dr Kalam. Dr Kalam spoke for a few minutes and our cofounder decided to meet him. But that was not possible in this life it seems. Our cofounder only visited his office cym residence after Dr Kalam left this earth.
We have launched our NGO by the name Developed Nation Network Trust in 2009 because we want each nation to be not just economically prosperous nation but a developed nation.

Homi Bhabha
Born on 30th October Died at the age of 56 years. Died on 24th January 1966.
The man who pioneered the Indian nuclear research programme, Homi Jahangir Bhabha was a nuclear physicist who laid the foundation for nuclear research in India. Often hailed as the “father of Indian nuclear programme’, Bhabha was not only a scientist, but also a visionary and an institution builder. From childhood, he was an intelligent and hard working student and his parents dreamed of him becoming a mechanical engineer. However, young Bhabha’s interest laid in studying physics and not in becoming an engineer. Yet he honored his parents’ wish and completed his degree in mechanical engineering. His parents too respected their son’s true interest and supported him in his pursuit of scientific research. Bhabha studied in Europe where he became acquainted with many great physicists of his time, and was determined to contribute to India’s scientific research upon his return. He had very ambitious plans and upon returning to his home country, he set about establishing the Cosmic Ray Research Unit. He helped to formulate India’s strategy in the field of nuclear power for which he is fondly remembered as the father of Indian nuclear power. The great scientist’s brilliant career was cut short by a plane crash which claimed his life. Hailed as the father of India’s nuclear power programme, Homi Bhabha was a visionary who foresaw the need for high quality facilities in the country to conduct research on nuclear power. He envisioned the three stage nuclear power programme which focused on extracting power from thorium instead of uranium reserves.

Bhaskara II
Born in 1114. Died at the age of 71 years.
Bhaskara II, also known as Bhaskara or as Bhaskaracharya, was a 12th century Indian mathematician. He was also a renowned astronomer who accurately defined many astronomical quantities, including the length of the sidereal year. A brilliant mathematician, he made the significant discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations centuries before European mathematicians like Newton and Leibniz made similar discoveries. It is believed that Bhaskara II was the first to conceive the differential coefficient and differential calculus. The son of a mathematician and astronomer, he was trained by his father in the subjects. Following in his father’s footsteps the young man too became a renowned mathematician and astronomer and was considered the lineal successor of the noted Indian mathematician Brahmagupta as head of an astronomical observatory at Ujjain. Bhaskara II wrote the first work with full and systematic use of the decimal number system and also wrote extensively on other mathematical techniques and on his astronomical observations of planetary positions, conjunctions, eclipses, cosmography, and geography. In addition, he also filled many of the gaps in his predecessor Brahmagupta’s work. In recognition of his invaluable contributions to mathematics and astronomy, he has been called the greatest mathematician of medieval India. Bhaskara II’s major work was the treatise ‘Siddhanta Siromani’ which was further divided into four parts, each of them dealing with diverse topics on arithmetic, algebra, calculus, trigonometry, and astronomy. He is considered to be a pioneer in the field of calculus as it is probable that he was the first to conceive the differential coefficient and differential calculus.

Aryabhata
Born in 476. Died at the age of 74 years. Died in 550.
Aryabhata was an acclaimed mathematician-astronomer. He was born in Kusumapura (present day Patna) in Bihar, India. His contribution to mathematics, science and astronomy is immense, and yet he has not been accorded the recognition in the world history of science. At the age of 24, he wrote his famed “Aryabhatiya”. He was aware of the concept of zero, as well as the use of large numbers up to 1018. He was the first to calculate the value for ‘pi’ accurately to the fourth decimal point. He devised the formula for calculating areas of triangles and circles. He calculated the circumference of the earth as 62,832 miles, which is an excellent approximation, and suggested that the apparent rotation of the heavens was due to the axial rotation of the earth on its axis. He was the first known astronomer to devise a continuous counting of solar days, designating each day with a number. He asserted that the planets shine due to the reflection of sunlight, and that the eclipses occur due to the shadows of moon and earth. His observations discount the “flat earth” concept, and lay the foundation for the belief that earth and other planets orbit the sun.

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