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Pakur District

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About the Pakur district

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Brief About Pakur District
Pakur, famous for stone and Beedi (Biri) making industry, is one of the important revenue-earning districts of newly created Jharkhand State. Its black stone chips have got Asiatic fame in constructional qualities. Pakur got elevated from sub-divisional Status to a district on 28th January 1994 vide Govt. of Bihar's notification no 19 (Personnel) dated 28.01.1994. Originally it was a Sub-division of Santhal Pargana District since 1868. When Santhal Pargana was divided into four districts i.e. Dumka, Deoghar, Godda and Sahibganj, Pakur was tagged with Sahibganj. It remained a Sub-division of Sahibganj till it was upgraded as district in the year 1994. It is surrounded by Sahibganj district in the north, Birbhoom District of West Bengal in the south, Murshidabad & a part of Birbhoom district of West Bengal in the east and Dumka & Godda Districts in the West. It exists between 230 to 400 & 250 to 180 - north latitude and between 860 -280 and 870-570 east longitudes.
Topographically it is divided into three parts i.e. the hilly area, the rolling area, and the alluvial area. The hilly area includes the whole of Damini-i-koh form North corner of the district up to the Southwest touching the border of Birbhoom district of West Bengal. A narrow continuous strip of alluvial soil, lies between the Ganga feeder canal and the loop line of Eastern Railway, is very fertile. Rest of the part covers the rolling areas, which is less conducive for agricultural operation.This district, once known for its thick & extensive forests, is now bereft of much of its jungle wealth. The medicinal plants such as Sarpgandha, Raigami or Dhami, Kazwa, Chiryaita etc. are now almost extinct. There has been large-scale destruction of forests in the past few years. So the Subsistent agro based economy, which was earlier supplemented by forest and forest produce, has been badly affected. But the Paharia people of this districts carry on their livelihood on the forest products like bamboo, sabai grass, tasser, silk cocoon, lac, simal cotton & kendu leaves.

There are three main rivers in this district namely Bansloi, Torai & Brahmini. Bansloi & Torai Rivers flow in the middle and Brahmini flows in the southern part of the District.
The climate of the major portion of the district has a hot dry summer, a good rainy season and cool winter. However the climate conditions of Pakur are like West Bengal with the characteristics of damp heat. Summer begins from the middle of March here and extends up to June. Maximum temperature in may and early June is as high as 46.70 C. December & January are cool months.

The year is divided into three main seasons. The winter season is from November to February, the summer from March to May and the monsoon from June to September. October is a month of transition from monsoon to winter.

Owing to natural drainage, the floods are not possible in this area. However a considerable portion of district lying between the Ganges feeder canal and loop line of eastern Railway is liable to water logging when sudden rains swell the rivers and its subsidiary branches. Although localised Floods in the form of water logging are annual features but they make the soil fertile.
Thus the damage is considerably compensated by higher yield.       

Historical Background
The authentic history of this area is very little known before the medieval period. Basically two petty estates known as Pakur Raj and Maheshpur Raj existed in this area. These two Zamindars linked with Mughal administration were responsible for the care and nourishment of this Paharia domain. After the battle of Plassey  the victorious Britishers developed their administrative network to control these areas through Birbhoom district of West Bengal. Captain Boronie was the first British officer who prepared a plan to win over the Paharias, the real inhabitants of this area. Though this area has always  a separate identity but strategically  it was controlled by the Rajmahal hills during the British period

Pakur was not immune from patriotic fervour and played very important role in country’s struggle for freedom. The contribution of the Santhal heroes like Sidhu, Kanhu Chand & Bhairav will be remembered forever. Their immortal remain may be seen at different place in Santhal Pargana Division.