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Kollam District

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About the Kollam district

Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website
http://niti.gov.in/file/345/download?token=A4ueqjgk

Brief About Kollam District
Quilon or Kollam is an old sea port town on the Arabian coast. About thirty per cent of this district is covered by the Astamudi lake, there by making it the gateway to the backwaters of the state. Once a city of palaces, Kollam has been known to the outside world, by the time honoured proverb, "Once you have seen Kollam you would no more need your illam (home)".

Kollam, the erstwhile Desinganadu, had a sustained commercial reputation from the days of the Phoenicians and the Romans. Fed by the Chinese trade, it was regarded by Ibn Batuta, as one of the five chief ports, which he had seen in the course of his travels during a period of twenty four years, in the 14th Century.  The rulers of Kollam (Desinganadu) and China, exchanged embassies and there was a flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam. Merchant Sulaiman of Siraf in Persia (9th Century) found Kollam to be the only port in India, touched by the huge Chinese junks, on his way from Canton to Persian Gulf. Marco Polo, the great Venician traveller, who was in Chinese Service under Kublahan in 1275, visited Kollam and other towns on the west coast, in his capacity as a Chinese mandarin.

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a trading centre at Kollam in 1502 A.D. Then came the Dutch followed by the British in 1795 AD A British garrison was stationed at Kollam in pursuance of a treaty between Travancore and the British.

Velu Thampi Dalawa of Travancore did much for the improvement of Kollam town. He built new bazars and invited merchants from Madras and Tirunelveli to settle here. Kollam later became the capital of the enlightened and liberal rulers of Desinganad. It was also the nerve centre of the rebellion organised by Velu Thampi against the British.

TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
The district is situated on the south west coast of India. It extends from latitude 9° 28' N to 8° 45' and longitude 76° 28' to 77° 17' N. The district is bound on the north by Alappuzha district, north east by the Pathanamthitta district, on the east by Thirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu, on the south by Thiruvananthapuram district and on the west by the Arabian Sea. The area of the district 2,492 sq. kms. And in area the district ranks seventh in the State.

Two rivers, Kallada and Ithikkara, flow through this district. The Sasthamcotta lake, the only major fresh water lake in the State, is here. Two other major lakes are the Ashtamudi kayal and the Paravoor kayal. Edava and Nadayara kayals lie partly in this district.

The district has a tropical humid climate, with an oppressive summer and plentiful seasonal rainfall. The hot season, lasting from March to May, is followed by the south west monsoon from June to September. The north east monsoon occurs from October to November. The rest of the year is generally dry.

CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS
 Kollam, the capital of the erstwhile Venad, was a great centre of learning and culture. It attracted distinguished scholars from all parts of South India. Leelathilakam and Unnuneelisandesam, two outstanding literary works of historical importance, are contributions of 14th Century Kollam. The dance form of Kathakali in its new version of Ramanattam was the creation of Kottarakkara Thampuran, who also improved Krishnattam by substituting Malayalam for Sanskrit.

Paravoor K.C.Kesava Pillai, a gifted poet, prose writer, dramatist and scholar, originated the musical play in Malayalam through his work Sadarma. His Kesaveeyam, a Mahakavyam, is of outstanding literary importance. In the history of Malayalam music, he has a prominent place as a gifted composer of songs. Paravoor Kesavan Asan, the founder editor of Sujanandini, another prominent literary figure, was a journalist and a prose writer of eloquence. His Saratchandrika is a contribution to the study of Ayurvedic system of medicine E.V.Krishna Pillai, another literary celebrity has etched his name in the field of humour and satire. C.V.Kunjuraman, editor of Kerala Kaumudi and Malayalarajyam was a poet, literary critic, prose writer and a journalist of outstanding distinction.

Coming to modern times, Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai and Soornadu Kunjan Pillai, noted literary historians and poets like O.N.V. Kurup, Thirunallur Karunakaran, Punalur Balan, novelist and poet Lalithambika Antharjanam are some of the literary luminaries hailing from this district.

Leaders like T.M.Varghese, C.Kesavan, Kumbalathu Sanku Pillai, N.Sreekantan Nair, R.Shankar and C.M.Stephen who played prominent roles in shaping the socio-political destiny of the State, are also from this district. The district gave birth to well known freedom fighters like Chandiran Kali Ambi (Kadakkal Manthri) and Franco Raghavan Pillai.

POPULATION
Sex ratio (defined as the number of females per 1000 males) shows a fluctuating trend from decade to decade. Taking the population in the district as a whole in 1941, 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001, females outnumber males. In all other decades there was a ponderance of males over females. According to the 1991 census there are 1043 females for every 1000 males, while it was 1022 in 1981 census. According to 2001 census the sex ratio of Kollam is 1070.

The density of population of the district has increased from 871 persons per sq. km. in 1981 to 963 in 1991. The total population of the district according to 2001 census is 2,584,118 and population density is 1037.

According to 1991 census, this district had a literacy rate of 90.47% against 72.95% in 1981. It was 64.97% in 1971. And according to 2001 census it is 91.49%.

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