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Kaimur District

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About the Kaimur district

Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website
http://niti.gov.in/file/518/download?token=6L0G6IRm

Brief About Kaimur District
The district has 14 police stations and covers an area of about 340447 Hectares, Geographically, the district can be divided into two parts viz. (i) Hilly area and (ii) Plain area. The hilly area comprises of Kaimur plateau. The plain area on the western side is flanked by the rivers The Karmanasha and the Durgawati. The Kudra river lies on it eastern side. The district of Buxar of Bihar State and the district of Ghazipur of U.P. State bound it on the North. On the south is the district of Garhwa of Jharkhand State and on the West is the district of Chandauli and Mirjapur of the U.P. State. On the East is district of Rohtas of Bihar State. The district has close linkage with the history of Shahabad, which was its parent district also. The old district of Shahabad had four subdivisions of which Bhabua was one. The present district of Kaimur has been formed from the whole of this Bhabua subdivision.

History
Kaimur has an old and interesting history. In pre-historic days the plateau region of the district has been the abode of the aboriginals whose chief representatives now are the Bhars, the Cheros and the Savers. According to some legends, the Kharwars were the original settlers in the hilly tracts of Rohtas. The Ovaons also claim that they ruled over the stretch falling between Rohtas and Patna. One local legend also connects Sasaram the present headquarters of Rohtas with king Sahasrarjun, who was killed by Saint Parshuram in a fight.

The district of Kaimur formed part of the mighty Magadh Empire from 6th century B.C. to 5th century A.D., under the Mauryan and Gupta rulers of Magadh. In the 7th century A.D., this district came under the control of Harshawardhan, the ruler of Kannouj. An inscription in the Mundeshwari temple near Bhabua refers to the king Udaysena asthe ruling chief of the area. The Seal of king Sasanka of Guada in Bengal is inscribed at Rohtasgarh in the district of Rohtas. The famous Chinese pilgrim Huen- tang, who journeyed through the country in the 7th century A.D., passed through Arrah, the headquarters of the old Shahabad district through this region of newly formed Kaimur district. The area of the district successively came under the rulers of Shail dynasty of central India and Pal dynasty ofBengal. According to C. Mark, a historian, the first ruler of Pal dynasty controlled this region. Later on Chandauli controlled Varanasi-Chandawali and also the Kaimur district in the 12th century, as confirmed by the Tarachandi inscription near Sasaram. After the fall of the Guptas the district in all probability relapsed into the hands of the aboriginal tribes and came under the control of petty chieftains. The Rajputs who came from Ujjain, and the province of Mallwa had a series of conflicts with the aboriginals and it took them many hundred years to subdue the aboriginal completely. The Census report of 1961 describes that when Bakhtiar Khiliji attacked Bihar in 1193 A.D., he found Shahabad in the hands of petty Rajput chiefs often fighting among themselves. They were not united and strong enough to offer powerful resistance to the Muslim invaders. Hence Bakhtiyar Khiliji had an easy victory over them and the district soon became a part of his kingdom. Later it was annexed, along with the rest of Bihar, to the kingdom of Jaunpur. A hundred year later, it passed under the direct control of the Muslim empire of Delhi.

Sher Shah's father, Hassan Khan Sur, got the Jagir of Sasaram. Later Baler invaded the area in 1529 and has mentioned Hindu superstitions about river Karmanasha. In 1537 the old Shahabad district witnessed advancement of Humayun and his subsequent conflict with Sher Shah at Chausa. Later the district of Shahabad (which includes present Kaimur district also) was included in Akbar's empire.

In 1758, Shah Alam during his conflict with Lord Clive of East India Company, went to Durgawati and with the help of local Zamindar Pahalwan Singh crossed the Karmanasha River. Subsequently Pahalwan Singh succumbed to comply and live on the latter's terms. In 1764, the old Shahabad district witnessed conflict for supremacy and the English became absolute masters of the area after defeating Siraj-ud-daula in the battle of Buxar. Again the area was shaken by the rebellion of Raja Chait Singh of Banaras but eventually the English succeeded in suppressing the revolt.

Lastly the historic 1857 mutiny under command of Kunwar Singh had its impact in the district. As a result, during the independence movement the district had a substantial contribution to the freedom of India. Much after independence in the year 1972 Rohtas district was formed out of the old Shahabad district and in the year 1991. The present Kaimur district was formed out of the Rohtas district.

Climate
The climate of the district is somewhat extreme in nature, i.e., quite hot during the summer and fairly cold during the winter. January is the coldest month when the mean minimum temperature comes down to approximately 4 degree C.. The temperature starts rising from March and reaches its peak in May when the mercury touches about 450C. Rain starts sometime in mid June and lasts till mid September. The district gets easterly winds from June to September, and from October to May wind direction reverses. Maximum rains occur during the months of July and August (289 mm). Sometimes winter rains occur in Jan-February.

River
Originating from the Kaimur hills, the river Karmanasha passes through Mirzapur district of U.P. and forms the western boundary of the district for about 170 Kms. The river Kudra, which forms eastern boundary separating Rohtas district, is a branch of the river Dhoba rising in Kaimur Plateau South-West of Tilauthu, and ultimately joins the river Karmanasha. The River Durgawati originates from Kaimur hills and flows in the northern direction. It is joined by the Kudra River before it merges finally into the river Karmanasha. The river Durgawati is perennial in nature and inundates a large area of land during heavy rains.

Forest
The alluvial plain extending up to the foothills of Kaimur ranges is extensively cultivated. Rice, wheat, pulses are the chief crops and the area is dotted with bamboo clumps and mango orchards. The Forests found in the Kaimur hills have suffered indiscriminate felling of trees in the recent past. The plateau is generally covered with long grasses, viz. Kush and khas. Sal trees of poor quality and vast stretches of bamboo are also found. Firewood, Tendu leaf and Chiraunji are the important forest products.

The number of fauna and game birds has gone down considerably with the increase in the area of cultivation due to increase in irrigation facilities.

Irrigation
Durgawati and the Karmanasha rivers are the perennial sources of surface water. A high level canal from Indrapuri (Dehri) has been irrigating the southern parts of this district. The canal is about 84 Kms long and irrigates about 34000 hectares of land during Kharif season and about 9000 hectares of land during Rabi season. The southern part of Kaimur district has a number of canal systems such as Durgawati Main Canal, Garachaube canal etc.

In the hilly tracts of Adhaura, Chainpur and Bhagwanpur blocks, only ditches and ponds are used to conserve rainwater. New techniques of water conservation and harvesting practices are needed in plain as well as these hilly areas to utilise rainwater. Reservoir tanks can store water from hill streams and rivulets especially when "Hathia" rain falls, which also provide irrigation during Rabi season. Water table in the plain areas is low and high yielding tube wells can sustain at a depth of 70-100 meters whereas small tube wells may get the aquifer zone within 25-30 meters depth. The normal depth of water table is 5-10 meters in winters and up to 15 meters in summers.

Land Use Pattern
Out of the total geographical area of the Kaimur district 31.22 % is covered by the forest, mainly in Adhaura, Chainpur and Bhagwanpur blocks. Paddy, Wheat, Barley and Maize are the main cereal crops of the district. Among pulses, gram occupies the maximum area of cultivation, followed by Mansur, Arhar, Moong and Urod. Sugar cane and potatoes are the main cash crops.

Timber, Bamboo, Firewood, Chiraunji and Kendu leaf are the main forest produce while the minor produce consists of honey, and fodder grass.

Mines and Minerals
Sands of the Durgawati and the Kudra River are exploited as building material. The hilly tracts of Kaimur ranges are a part of very old Vindhyan system of mountains; hence, there is possibility of limestone, sulpher and pyretic iron ores to be found here. The mineral wealth needs more study and is yet to be explored properly.

Industrialisation
The district is scantily industrialised. A few private rice mills, however, are found here mainly in Mohania Subdivision. Mohania block in credited with a DRDA sponsored Dairy and a BSTDC hotel known as, the Kaimur Hotel.

NH 2 (G.T. Road) crosses through the center of the district from Karmanasha to Kudra for about 50 km. NH 30 originates from it near Mohania and connects this district with the capital Patna via Arah. Apart from these, there are also a few State Highways in the district.

Transport Facilities
Mohania Block is situated on Gaya-Mughalsarai Section of Grand Chord Railway line; the railway station is called Bhabua Road. The district headquarter is located at a distance of 14 Kms southward from the railway station or the G.T. Road.

Commerce
Banarasi Sari, Silk, Kaleen, Dari and Agricultural produces are the main articles, which are traded in and out of the district.

Electricity and Energy
Pusauli power station is being constructed at a distance of 8-10 Kms form the Sub-divisional Headquarters of Mohania. The possibility of tapping solar energy is also great in the district.

KEY STATISTICS OF DISTRICT

Establishment - 1991

Road Communication
1. Pucca Road - 771.99 Km.
2. Kacha Road - 1255.19 km

Railway

No. of Railway Station - 07

Post-Office
1. No. of Post-office - 120 2. No. of Telegram office - 09

Agriculture Data
(a) Land distribution.
1. Total geographical area - 340441 Hec.
2. Net area under cultivation - 176734 Hec.
3. Current fallow land - 17304 Hec
4. Area under forest - 106300 Hec.
5. Area under non-agricultural use - 2598 Hec.
6. Other area under non-agricultural use - 37505 Hec.

(b) Irrigation
1. Irrigated area 71794 Hec.
2. Irrigation area presenters of Net area - 40%
3. Source wise Irrigation area
(i) Govt. Tube well - 1307 Hec.
(ii) Private Tube well - 8676 Hec.
(iii) Canal - 55743 Hec.
(iv) Other source - 6068 Hec.

(c) Cropping Pattern
1. Crop area Sown under two or three - 114683
2. Present's of net area sown under two or three crop - 64.89%
3. Total crop area - 291417 Hec.

(d) Five main crop area
1. Paddy - 111000 Hec.
2. Wheat - 67688 Hec.
3. Dalhan - 72431 Hec.
4. Telhan - 12086 Hec.
5. Maze - 1445 Hec.

e) Fertilizer (Ton) - Total use - 24.423

(f) Agricultural tools - 1. No. of Tractors. - 1240 2. No. of Pump set - 9401

(g) Cattle

1. Plough cattle - 133360 2.
Dairy cattle -
(i) Cow - 65636
(ii) Buffalo - 95822 3-
Other - 110356 4-
No. of Poultry - 82539 Industry

Industry
1. No. of Major Industry - Nil
2. No. of small scale industry -

669 Market
1. No. of current Market. - 10
2. No. of cooperative Market - 178
3. No. of current hat/ weekly market - 22
4. No. of cooperative society or agricultural dept. seed Bhandar - 09

Population (As per Census 2001)

Total Population
(a) Rural Population - 1243068
(b) Urban Population - 41507
(c) Total Male - 673556
(d) Total Female - 611019
(f) Sex Ratio {Total female per 1000 male} 907
(g) Working Percentage 34.41 %·

Male 47.07 %·

Female 20.45 %

Literacy - Person - 570260 (56%)
Male - 381298 (71%)
Female - 188962 (39%)

India