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Official Website : http://idukki.gov.in

Headquarters : Painavu
State : Kerala

Area in Sq Km (Census 2011)
Total : 4356
Rural : 4320.57
Urban : 35.43

Population (Census 2011)
Population : 1108974
Rural : 1056929
Urban : 52045
Male : 552808
Female : 556166
Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 males) : 1006
Density (Total, Persons per sq km) : 255

Official language : Malayalam

Helplines :
Call Center for General Query 1961
Child Helpline 1098
Civil Supplies 1967(Toll free no:)
Crime Stopper 1090
DIAL A DOCTOR (Toll free Tele Health Helpline) BSNL Toll free No: 1056 | 0471- 2552056 (Other connections)
Disaster Management Helpline 1077 (Collectorates)
Kerala Water Authority (Toll free no.) 1800-425-5313 (24×7)
Fire Station 101
KSEB 1912 | 0471- 2555544
‘Mitra’ Women Hepline 181 (24×7)
Police Station (Nearest) 100
Women Helpline 1091

Population (Census 2010) :
The current world population is 7.6 billion (As of 1st July 2018)

Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website

Brief About Idukki District

History and Heritage
The district was formed on January 26, 1972 carving out of Devikulam, Peerumedu and Udumbanchola taluks from Kottayam district and Thodupuzha taluk from Ernakulam district. It extends by 115 kms. from south to north and 67 kms. From east to west. The area of the district is 5019 Sq. kms. For revenue administration the district is sub divided into four taluks viz., Devikulam, Peermade, Udumbanchola and Thodupuzha. For purposes of developmental activities it is divided into eight blocks Arudai, Devikulam, Elamdesom, Idukki, Kattappana, Adimali, Nedumkandom and Thodupuzha. The district is bounded by Kottayam and Pathanamthitta districts on the south, Thrissur and Coimbatore districts on the north, Madurai, Ramanad and Thirunelveli districts on the east and Ernakulam and Kottayam districts on the west,

Though the district cannot boast of a history of the rise and fall of a few dynasties, it played a significant role in the spiritual development of the country, especially the south. The Ramayana gives a graphic description of the flora of the Pamba Valley.

It is believed that the name Sabarimala derived from Sabari Ashram which was located at Sabari Peedom near Sabari Mala, one of the famous Pilgrim centres. The Lord Ayyappa Temple at Sabarimala is supposed to be the place where a great Jain or Buddhist monk attained Nirvana. (Now Sabarimala is in Pathanamthitta district). The archaeological evidence of the Mangaladevi Temple 15 kms. from Thekkadi in the dense forest bespeaks of an equally shrouded antiquity. May be, with its undulating hills and valleys and the perennial rivers the district formed a recluse for the spiritual seekers of ancient India.

But the history of the present population of the district is very recent. It is a history of colonisation braving inclement weather, wild animals and epidemics. It is also a history of the exploitation of labour and labour struggles. Settling in the district began in all seriousness during the Ministry of Sri T.K.Narayana Pillai, as a sequence to the grow-more-food campaign in the State. These migrants who constituted a few planters and a cross section of the people became the nucleus of the present population. In the days of Shri Pattom Thanu Pillai it became a systematic colonisation. Kallar Pattom colony in Udumbanchola taluk bears the imprint of his name. That the earliest human habitation of the district started from Tamil Nadu in the first two decades of the present century can be gauged from the story that while Maharaja Sri Mulam was personally supervising the construction of the Dam on Mullaperiyar river he felt thirsty and a shepherd called Ankur Rautar gave him milk hot from the udder of the sheep. The delighted Maharaja gave him title over extensive forest land which his descendants sold to land owners in Tamil Nadu and with the help of cheap labour they were converted into Cardamom or Tea Plantations. The area around Munnar developed from the time when the British made it their summer resort. Here too the immediate accessible population was from Tamil Nadu and Munnar became a Tamil pocket in Kerala.


Flora and Fauna
The district has at present about 260907 ha. forest area. However, the sylvan wealth of the district and the animal life are fast disintegrating due to deforestation, indiscriminate felling of trees, encroachment and poaching. All kinds of wild animals with the exception of lions abound in the forests of Idukki. The grasslands of Peermade are a haven of carnivores like the tiger and the leopard. This is chiefly so, as they are a natural upon. Bison, wildbear, languor and monkeys are a few other common denizens of the jungle. The Thar (striped goat) seen in Marayur region and Rajamala is found nowhere else in the world. The forest glades of Idukki resound in day time with the sweet voices of birds. They include the small wild parrots, mynas, red horned sparrows and a host of other nondescript species.

The valuable trees growing in the forests are teak, rosewood, deodars, sandal etc. The Forest Department has reared large Eucalyptus Plantations in the hilly tracts.

The population of the district, according to 2001 census, is 1,128,605. The density of population is 252 per sq. km.

Most of the Harijans work as agricultural labourers in the tea and cardamom estates. Ayyappancoil and Pampadumpara of Udumbanchola taluk, Kumali of Peermade taluk, Kuttampuzha, Mannamkandam and Marayur of Devikulam taluk, Vannappuram, Vazhathope and Velliyamattom of Thodupuzha taluk are the concentrations of Harijans. Mannans, Mala Arayans, Urali, Muthuvans, Hill Pulaya, Paliyan and Ulladan are the different groups of tribals in the district. All these tribes are not aborigins. The Muthuvans of Marayoor, Kanthaloor and Vattavada panchayats speak Tamil dialects. Their tribal legends show that they were the loyal servants of a section of the royal dynasty of Madurai and they carried the idols of Madurai Meenakshi for the fleeing royal members on their backs which are known in Tamil as 'Muthuku'. Thrown out from power at Madurai the surviving members of the Madurai Royal family established the Poonjar dynasty in Kerala, and the servants who came with them with the idols on heir backs settled in the forests near Tamil Nadu, and are now known as Muthuvans. They are agriculturists. The Mala Arayans of Vannappuram, Velliyamattom, Udumbannoor and Arankulam panchayats are also agriculturists. They look like the plains-dwellers, and believe that they were a section of the Arayans of the coastal belt of Kerala who migrated to the forest and came to be known as Mala Arayans.

Christians constitute the majority among the population of the district. They settled in the High Ranges in the course of their search for pastures anew. Behind the agricultural development of Idukki there is the untold hardship of this hard working people in the early days of settlement. Though there are many rich estate owners among them, the majority are middle class farmers earning their livelihood through their struggle against soil and climate.

Muslims are confined to certain pockets of the district. The municipality of Thodupuzha has a large Muslim population. They are mostly small traders and business men. In Munnar there are a few rich Muslims engaged in flourishing business. The Muslims of Kumily hailed from Tamil Nadu. Some of them have cardamoms estates of their own and the others are engaged in trade. In Peermade there is a large number of Muslim families. The name "Peermade" derived from the name of a Muslim Saint "Pir Mohammed".

Nairs form a small portion of the population of Idukki. The eastern part of Thodupuzha has a considerable Nair population. They are mostly engaged in agriculture.

In Udumbanchola taluk Ezhava are numerically second to the Christians. Most of them are small farmers. In Thodupuzha and Peermade taluks too their numerical strength is comparatively high.

Devikulam and Peermade taluks a large concentration of Tamilians who are mainly labourers in tea and cardamom estates. This population is slightly fluctuating in nature as they are having their permanent settlements in Tamil Nadu. Most of the cardamom estates are owned by Tamilians living in Cumbum, Gudalur and other towns in the adjoining Madurai district.

Topography and Climate
Sprawling over an area of 5,061 sq. kms. the district is marked by undulating hills and valleys. The high ranges vary in altitude from 2500 ft. above mean sea level in Kulamavu to more than 5,000 ft. above M.S.L. in Munnar. The highest peak in Kerala, Anamudi is in the district. It is 8,841 ft. high. The different levels of elevation promote the growth of diverse flora. Except a bit of midland region in the western portions of Thodupuzha taluk all the remaining areas consisting of Devikulam, Peermade and Udumbanchola taluks and the eastern portion of the Thodupuzha taluk are entirely highland region. Granite hills touching the skies and being skirted round with thick rain-fed sylvan forest render a terrific charm to the district. There are eleven peaks in Idukki which exceed a height of 6000 ft. above M.S.L. The highland region is having a comparatively cold climate. In peaks above an elevation of 2400 metres the temperature at times falls down to near freezing point in the writer. Occurrence of mist is usual in the highland region lying over an elevation of 1300 metres above M.S.L.

The annual rainfall in the district varies from 250 to 425 cms. But, it is recorded that the annual rainfall had gone upto 700 CMS in certain years. The eastern and northeastern regions of the district get very low rainfall in contrast to other areas. This may go up to 150 CMS at Marayur, Kanthalloor, Vattavada and Thalayar regions. Marayur and Kanthalloor are virtually rain shadow areas, lying in the eastern side of the Western Ghats.