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Gumla District

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About the Gumla district

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Brief About Gumla District
Long ago Gumla was a small hamlet . It was known as a fair place GAU- MELA . This fair took place once in a year and continues for one week. Here all items of daily use, utensils , ornaments, grains,cattle etc were sold & exchanged . Since there was no other alternative to get the items , people make a long list of items required during the year ( whether it is for marriage ceremony or for any occasions ) and buy them in this MELA. People from distant places used to come here for buying & selling cattle such as cows & bullocks for agricultural purposes . Gradually people started to inhabit this place .It grew into a village and got the name GUMLA as a derivative of GAU – MELA.

During medieval era Chhotanagpur region was reigned by Kings of NAGA dynasty. BARAIK DEVENANDAN SINGH was given right to rule over Gumla circle. It is said that during the KOLH REBEL in 1931-32 , VAKTAR SAY had played a prominent role . GANGA MAHARAJ, who built the KALI TEMPLE at Sri Ramnagar, had played active role in QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT in 1942. For this great contribution for Independence, he was honored with LIFE TIME PENSION by government of India.

During British rule GUMLA was under LOHARDAGA district .In 1843 it was brought under BISHUNPUR province that was further named RANCHI .In fact Ranchi district came into existence in 1899. In 1902 Gumla became Sub-division under Ranchi district.

On 18 MAY 1984 GUMLA DISTRICT came into existence .Sri Jagannath Mishra then ruling chief minister of Bihar inaugurated it and Sri Dwarika Nath Sinha acquired the post of 1st deputy commissioner of the just born district.

It is a matter of great regret that GUMLA that is a territory of great historical importance has not been brought under research map.

Blessed with nature’s beauty , the district of Gumla is covered by  dense forests, hills and rivers. It  is situated in the southwest portion of the Jharkhand State. The District was carved out of Ranchi District on 18th May 1983. Previously it was a sub-division of old Ranchi district. The district lies between 22° 35” to 23° 33” north latitude and 84° 40” to 85° 1” east longitude. The various legends are in currency regarding its name .

The most popular one ascribes to its word 'Gumla' in Mundari language, which relates to the occupation of the local Tribes in rice processing work (dhan-kutna). The second legend 'Gau-mela' relates to cattle fair. Cattle fair was weekly held in Gumla town every Tuesday. In rural areas, Nagpuri and Sadri people still call it 'gomila'.

Till 30th April 2001, Gumla district consisted on 2 sub-divisions viz Gumla and Simdega. But after the creation of Jharkhand State , a new district of Simdega was carved out of Gumla district on 30th April, 2001. Now, Gumla district consists of only one sub-division namely Gumla. Total area of the district is about 5327 sq. km.

The total population of district as per 1991 census is 706489, out of which 355505 is male population and 350984 is female population.There is predominance of tribal people in Gumla district.  The primitive tribe’s population is 11283, SC population is 24329, ST population is 476316, and BC population is 132610 and others population is 61951. Since obvious that the district has a total of 68% of tribal population, therefore, it comes within scheduled area .