Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726) was an
English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day
as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised
as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key
figure in the scientific revolution.

Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal
gravitation, which dominated scientists' view of the physical
universe for the next three centuries. By deriving Kepler's laws
of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity,
and then using the same principles to account for the trajectories
of comets, the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other
phenomena, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of
the heliocentric model of the Solar System. This work also demonstrated
that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies could
be described by the same principles.

Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed
a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes
white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. He
formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound,
and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to
his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to
the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to
non-integer exponents, developed a method for approximating the
roots of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane curves.