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Ganjam District

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About the Ganjam district

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Brief About Ganjam District
The district got it's name from the word "Ganj-i-am" which means the Granary of the World. The district is named after the old township and European fort of Ganjam situated on the northern bank of river Rushikulya which was the head quarter of the district. The Rock Edicts of Ashoka inscribed on a hill then known as Kapingala Parbat are found at Jaugada. The Ganjam area was a part of ancient Kalinga which was occupied by Ashok in 261 B.C. Though in 1757 it was French Commander Bussy, who march into Ganjam and realized areas of tribute from federal chiefs, it was English who ultimately defeated the French in the Decan and annexed Ganjam in 1759. The office of the Collector, Ganjam was established in 1794. Early in the 19th century, Ganjam became a melting pot of political turmoil due to the revolt of Zamidars against the British authorities which continued till 1836. With the beginning of 20th century, struggle for amalgamation of Oriya tracts was keenly organised in Ganjam and in the year 1896 Oriya was recognized as the official language. Originally the district was in Madrass Presidency in the Biritsh period. It had only three Government Taluks, 16 large proprietary estates, 35 minor Zamidaries. In Madrass Presidency the area of the district was 8311 square miles of which 5205 sq.miles comprised of agency tracts. The head quarter of the district of Ganjam was abandoned in 1855 owing to out break of a very dreadful epidemic fever by which 80 % population of the Ganjam town was reduced. The head quarter temporarily shifted to Gopalpur then to Berhampur and finally in and around 1902 to Chatrapur. The district got separated from Madrass Presidency and formed a part of the newly created State of Orissa province with effect from 1.4.1936. The re-organised district comprises the whole of Ghumusor, Chatrapur and Baliguda divisions, part of old Berhampur taluk, part of old Ichapur taluk, part of Parlakhemundi plains area and the whole of Parlakhemundi agency area in the old Chicacola division. As per the recent re-organised plan for the district by Govt. of Orissa the 7 blocks of Paralakhemundi Subdivision was separated and the new district of Gajapati came in to being. As such the Ganjam District at present constitute of 3 subdivisions, 22 blocks, 14 Tahasils with a population of 27.04 lakhs (1991 census) extending from 19.4 degree north latitude to 20.17 degree north latitude and 84.7 degre east longitude to 85.12 degree east longitude spreading over the geographical area of 8070.60 square km.

Physiography
Ganjam district is broadly divided into two divisions, the coastal plains area in the east and hill and table lands in the west. The eastern ghats run along the western side of the district. The plains lies between the eastern ghats and the Bay of Bengal. Since the hills are close to the sea, the rivers flowing from hills are not very long and are subject to sudden floods. The plains are narrow because of the absence of big rivers. The coastal plains in the east contain more fertile and irrigated lands. Towards the centre and south it is hilly with beautiful well watered valley. The south eastern portion is fertile. The extreme north east is occupied by a portion of the famous Chilika lake. Natural Resources Water The Bay of Bengal touches the eastern frontier of Ganjam district and its coast extends over 60 Kms. It provides unique oppertunity for fishing and port facility at Gopalpur for international trade. The rivers like Rushikulya, Dhanei, Bahuda, Ghoda Hada are the prominent ones which govern the agriculture and power sectors of the district. The vast river basine of Rushikulya provides Grand potential for explotation of ground water. How ever the rivers only navigable during the rain season only. The Chilika lake which attracts international tourist known for its scenic beauty and a marvalous birds centuary is situated in the eastern part of district. Soil The district has allovial soil in its eastern part (coastal region) and laterite Soil in the west (hilly table land) with small patches of black cotton soil at the centre and in the north east close to Chilika. Mineral resources The chief economic minerals found in the district are abrasives and grinding materials, line stone (kankar), manganese, monazite, sand and talc. Garnetiferous granitic gnashes and charanokites are used for manufacture of grinding stones in the district white clay deposits are also found in different areas of the district. Forest Resources The forest of Ganjam district comes under the mix moist peninsular high and low level Sal forests, tropical moist and dry deciduous and tropical deciduous forest types. It provides a wide range of raw materials. It is also quite famous for wild life diversity.

CLIMATE
The district is characterised by an equable temperature all through the year, particularly in the coastal regions and by high humidities. The cold season from December to February is followed by hot season from March to May. The period from June to September marks the South West Monsoon and 70% of annual precipitation is received during this period. The normal rain fall of this district is 1444 mms. May is the hotest month. With the arrival of the monsoon by about the second week of june the day temperature decreases slightly while the night temperature continue as it was in the summer. Towards the end of September, after the withdrawal of south west monsoon, temperature decreases progressively. December is the coldest month. The relative humidity are high throughout the year specially in coastal areas. Winds are fairly strong particularly in coastal regions in summer and mansoon months.

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