Organs donation

International practices of organ donation
Organ donation and transplant rates vary widely across the globe, but there remains an almost universal shortage of deceased donors. The unmet need for transplants has resulted in many systematic approaches to increase donor rates, but there have also been practices that have crossed the boundaries of legal and ethical acceptability. Recent years have seen intense interest from international political organizations, led by the World Health Organization, and professional bodies, led by The Transplantation Society. Their efforts have focused on the development of a series of legal and ethical frameworks, designed to encourage all countries to eradicate unacceptable practices while introducing programmes that strive to achieve national or regional self-sufficiency in meeting the need for organ transplants. These programmes should seek to reduce both the need for transplantation and also develop deceased donation to its maximum potential. Living donation remains the mainstay of transplantation in many parts of the world, and many of the controversial—and unacceptable—areas of practice are found in the exploitation of living donors. However, until lessons are learnt, and applied, from countries with highly developed deceased donor programmes, these abuses of human rights will be difficult to eradicate. A clear international framework is now in place to achieve this.

Source : Kokilaben Hospital
Statistics suggest that about 150,000 people in India are waiting for a kidney transplant; however, only 3000 of them receive of them are able to receive a transplant. Only 1 out of 30 people who need a kidney receives one. 90% of people in the waiting list die without getting an organ.

Fifteen years after India passed the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, allowing organ retrieval from the brain-dead patients, kidney donations by live donors remain very much in vogue and, according to a recent study, the country sees more such transplants than any other country in the world barring the US.

India, however, slips to the 40th rank in the study of 69 countries in terms of number of transplants per million population, with only three in a million getting the kidney in case of a renal failure. According to a report in the Kidney International—the journal of the International Society of Nephrology—about 27,000 related and unrelated living kidney donor (LKD) transplants occur worldwide every year, of which 6,435 take place in the US and 1,768 in Brazil with India figuring in between with about 3,200 transplants, a number which the authors said, doesn’t represent “reliable national data”.

The number of transplants per year to be in the range of 3,000-3,500, with barely 5% coming from the brain-dead. The annual requirement is about 150,000.
Cadaver organ donation in India
Spain has the highest number of organ donation rate from brain dead patients in the world at 33 per one million population. In India our current organ donation rate is 0.05 per million (about 50 Cadaver donors per year). However if we can improve it even to 1 per million donation - we could take care of some of the organ shortages in India and this is how the arithmetic's would work:
At 1 per million donation rate we would have 1100 organ donors which would take care of almost all current demands for organs in India.
At 2 per million donation rate there would be 2200 organ donors and there would be no necessity to undertake living kidney donations.
If we reach 3 per million, we could take care of demand for organs for all SAARC countries.
At 5 per million we would have 10,000 kidneys, 5000 hearts and 5000 livers and we could start looking at the problem of organ shortage in rest of Asia and other parts of the world.
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