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Bengaluru Rural District

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About the Bengaluru Rural district

Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website
http://niti.gov.in/file/639/download?token=5oxdnEtd

Brief About Bengaluru Rural District
Bengaluru Rural District came into being on 15th August 1986 with the division of Bangalore District into Bengaluru Rural and Bangalore (Urban). The district occupies 16th place in size, Bidar, Mandya, Kodagu, and Bangalore (Urban) Districts occupying Next ranks in succession in the State. Bengaluru Rural District is located in the South-Eastern corner of Karnataka State. Spanning a Geographical area of 5,814 sq km, the district lies stretched between the latitudinal parallels of 12 15’ N and 13 35’ N on the one hand and the longitudinal meridians of 77 05’ E and 78 E on the other. The new district physically almost surrounds the Bangalore (Urban) District except having an opening in the South-East, the Anakal Taluk, the connecting area between Kanakapura and Hosakote Taluks, being a part of the Bangalore (urban) district and the headquarters of the new district is at Bangalore itself. The district on the plateau with an average elevation of 600 to 900 metres from mean Sea level has ranges of Hills which are actually spurs of the Eastern Ghats, Stretching northwards with peaks like the Banantimari Betta, Mudawadi Betta, Bilikal Betta, Siddadevara Betta, etc. The Savandurga and Shivaganga peaks are another row of Hill ranges, spreading upto the Nandi Hills running across the Bangalore(Urban) district. Bengaluru Rural District had many prehistoric sites at places like Jadigenahalli (Hosakote Taluk), Bellandur and Savandurga. The District abounds in wonderful Tourist spots. Places of scenic beauty, tall Hills, forts and beautiful monuments beckon the Tourists to visit them. The new district forms a part of Deccan Plateau and the rock formation belong to the category of peninsular Gneiss. The Granite Gneisses that abound in Kanakapura, Nelamangala, Devanahalli and Ramanagaram Taluks have created captivating Landscapes all along and they have provided jobs to hundreds engaged in quarrying.

The Arkavati, the Kanva and the Dakshina Pinakini are the tributary Rivers which flow through the District in the General Direction from North to South. Cultivable lands

Are mainly rain-fed and dry farming is a characteristic feature of the district. By and large this Rural district is Agricultural and Ragi is the main crop through mulberry is raised over considerable tracts. The climate of the district is salubrious and very agreeable. It is devoid of extremes. But rainfall is meager, and as no major river flows in the district Irrigation facilities are also limited. This district too had often suffered from deficit and capricious rainfall conditions and the resultant phenomenon of crop failure. The contribution of Horticulture to the Economy of the district is quite substantial. The district has considerable tracts under Horticultural crops like mango and Grapes . Betel vine Gardens are also seen in many places. Animal Husbandry is being Practiced since Generations as an adjunct to Agriculture. A high degree of Urbanisation Of Bangalore city has enhanced the economic importance of dairying , poultry keeping And Horticulture which provide livelihood to a very large section . considerable numbers are also engaged in raising sheep for wool as well. Channapatna, Ramanagaram, Vijayapura and Kanakapura have been the most notable centers of Sericulture and Doddaballapura and Devanahalli are remembered for prosperous weaving Industry. The toys of Channapatna, of Lacquer-ware and the pottery objects Of Ramanagaram are the outcome of flourishing crafts. Considerable number of people are engaged in rolling beedies and Agarbattis.

ORIGIN OF NAME
The Bengaluru Rural District derives its name from its head quarters town, Bangalore and majority of the district consists of Rural Areas. The earliest reference to the name is seen in a Ninth Century Ganga Inscription from Begur as ‘ Benguluru' ‘The present name Bangalore is the Anglicised form of Bengaluru. A popular story tries to suggest the origin of Bengaluru ‘ from ‘ Bendakaluru `, Hoysala Ballala, during his long journey is stated to have been fed by an old women , with Benda kalu (Boiled beans). The prince named the place as ‘Benda kala uru ‘

The District lies in the southern maidan region of the State and is by and large An open country which is lacking in natural barriers. Bengaluru Rural District is bounded on the North by Tumkur and Kolar Districts: on the South by Mandya and Mysore Districts and Tamil Nadu State; on the east by Kolar District and Tamil Nadu State and on the West by Tumkur and Mandya Districts. The outline map of the district seems to roughly resemble a human ear, the hollow in the center and the portion connecting the ear to the head representing the Bangalore (Urban) district. For a distance of about 16km on the south, the river Cauvery separates the district form Mysore district narrowing at one point called the Mekedatu ‘ Goat’s Leap’ .

AREA AND POPULATION

Bengaluru Rural district has an area of 5,814sq km, and it forms about 3% of the Total area of the State.

HISTORY OF THE DISTRICT AS AN ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT;

Historically, the earliest dynasty which established its sway over this district is that of the Gangas. In about the fourth century A.D., the Gangas established themselves at Kolar and the territory comprised in Bengaluru Rural district formed part of Gangavadi 96,000 and Honganur of Channapatna Taluk was the chief town of a sub-division, called Chikka Gangavadi, which occupied the Shimsha valley. During the Seventh century, Mankund was a place of great importance and was the second royal residence of Ganga Bhuvikrama(654-79) and also of Shivamara(679-726). In the eight century Shri Purusha made Manyapura ( Manne of Nelamangala Taluk) his royal residence and later it was a major center under the Rashtrakutas. Manne or Mannekadakam of Tamil records had been the headquarters of Rashtrakutas Governor Kambarasa. Certain parts of the district, especially in the East, were held by the Nolamb Pallavas.

Rivers
The major portion of Bengaluru Rural district lies in the Arkavati valley. The Arkavati, the Kanva and the Dakshina pinakini (southern Pennar) are the rivers which flow through the district in the general direction from north to south.

Unique Cultural system contributed to the wealth of the Indian Cultural Heritage. Bengaluru Rural District is located in the south-eastern corner of Karnataka spanning a geographical area of 5,814 sq.km and it forms about 3.02 percent of the total area of the state. The total population of the district is 16,65,468 as per the 1991 census. The district lies between the latitude parallel to 12 15’ North and the longitude and meridians 77 05’ East and 78 West. The mean sea level of the district is at a difference of height between 629 to 950 mtr. Bengaluru Rural District consists of 8 taluks namely:

Channapatna
Devanahalli
Doddaballapura
Hosakote
Kanakapura
Magadi
Nelamangala
Ramanagar

Takuks

CHANNAPATNA
Brief note on Channapatna Taluk
Channapatna taluk comes under Bengaluru Rural district. Its headquarters is located in Bangalore-Mysore highway. The total geographical area of the taluk is 53,587 hectares. It has three hoblies, namely:

1) Kasaba
2) Malur
3) Virupakshapura

The total number of grama panchayaths in the taluk are 32. The taluk is famous for toys. World wide market is available for this toys which are manufactured by traditional as well as advanced industries. It is also involved in twisting of raw silk and manufacturing silk and coconut is a major product of the taluk. Various other activities are also carried out here by rural artisans for likelihood namely carpenting, Dhobi, Blacksmithy, Stone crushers etc. It has also pocessed the Kanva reservior which has got a siphon principle to make flow of excess water.

Channapatna Taluk has Artisan Training Institute (A.T.I) which was established 94 years ago. This institute was established to promote Channapatna toys. These channapatna toys are famous throughout the world. These toys are made of a specific wood called "Aale mara". The other crafts being imparted are Carpentry, Lacquerware toys, coir and Blacksmithy.

CHANNAPATNA situated on the state highway (60 km from Bangalore ) is one of the considerably old towns. In early 1873, Channapatna was the sub-taluk under Closepet (Ramanagaram) and in 1892 it was made a centre of full-fledged taluk and Closepet became a sub-taluk under Channapatna. One damaged Tamil record (now missing) found on the sluice of Ramannanakere approximately dating back to 1100 A.D. mentions that the sluice and cistern were constructed by one Choila official Kalumalam Vedu Appanai, a merchant residing at Siriya- Malavur. All other detils are lost (Cp 35). But the earliest mention of the place is in a Vijaayanagara record from neighbouring village Krishnapura date 1387 A.D., where there is a reference 'Channapattana Rajya'. It is locally said that in olden days, the place was also called 'Chandapura', out there is no epigraphical evidence to this view. The place is on the left bank of the Kanva river. The place was under the Gangas as Mankunda nearby (9 km from Channapatna) was the secondary capital of Gangas for some time. Later it was under the Cholas followed by the Hoysalas and the Vijayanagara rulers. One of the ancient towns, Chickmalur is now a part of the Channapatna Munici- pality.

Across the Kanva river, in Malur or Dod Malur another town of the Chola times, now a hobli centre. Channapatna was the headquarters of a `rajya' under Vijayanagar and the Bhandarada Thimmappayya admi- nistered it in 1534. It became the capital of Jagadevaraya whose family was subordinate to Vijayanagara (from 1570 to 1630). (see also Chapter II). The fort of the town appears to have been built in about 1580 by Jagadevaraya. In 1630, Mysore ruler Chamaraja Wodeyar occupied Channapatna. The Marathas led by Gopala Hari took possession of the fort in 1759. But soon Haider Ali recaptured it. Tippu Sultan in 1790 dismantled the fort owing to its vulnerability and removed the guns and stores. The Mysore gate has disappeared now but closeby to it, on the north there is a stone Mantapa which might have been a gate. It was repaired by Dewan Puranaiah and even now there is a portion of the fort wall in the town area.

One of the striking buildings of the town is the Timmapparaja Urs Mansion on the Jayachamarajendra Road . This mansion built by Timmapparaja, a brother-in-law of Krishnaraja Wodeyar III is now crumbling down as it is badly preserved. This is an imposing three- storeyed building constructed with brick and mortar amidst a protec- tive well extending over an area of nearly two acres. It is known that Timmapparaja was the Foujdar incharge of Channapatna. The building is a typical Hindu mansion of the early 19th century with a rectangular jagali in front, large halls and rooms in the front and back, and a fine large open quadrangle behind. In the middle of the Court yard at its back, is a small pond which used to get water supplied through a fountain from a tank called Kunnirakatte on the Bangalore Road .

The first floor of the front building has a large Darbar hall supported by a row of six ornate wooden pillars. These have black stone pedestals, fluted shafts converging towards the top brackets, finely painted and gilded. The beams and ceilings which are all of wood, are beautifully painted with elegant designs formed of floral figures with in-fillings of swans, flowering creepers and plants. Even though the building is in ruins, the paintings are in good state of preservation and are pleasing to the eyes. Several of the doorways are finely designed and painted. The lintel of the front doorway has a fine little pavilion below which stands Venugopala reclining on a cow. Below an Ashwattha tree near this mansion are installed some stray sculptures of Brahma, Veerabhadra, Rama (seated) and Lakshmana (standing), Surya, Bikshatana Murti and Bhairava. To the north of this palace was a ston record (now preserved in the Janapada Loka near Ramanagar) dated 1756 A.D. It announces that one officer Viraiya built a tank on the orders ofKalale Nanjaraja. The industrial area of the town is called Shukravarapete and this portion is thickly populated. The Bazar (pete) lies to the north-east of the Fort. Popular items like lacquerware and toys, fine steel wires for strings of musical instruments (especially Veena) and glass bracelets are manufactured even today by traditional method at this place.

The oldest temple of the place is the Varadaraja (in fort area) wherein the main deity is believed to have been originally installed by Sri Ramanujacharya. This is a hugh structure with a spacious inner Prakara. Its Garbhagriha is squarish with a tall standing image of Varadaraja (Narayana) having early Vijayanagara features. There is an Ardhamantapa leading to a specious Navaranga having six Vijayanagara pillars containing many relief sculptures on them. Over the Garbhagriha is a Dravidian Shikhara over its niches are stucco images of Dashavatara sequences. Facing the Navaranga is a specious Mukhamantapa with tall massive pillars having impressive relief sculptures depicting Vaishnava episodes. On either sides of the spacious Mukhamantapa are two Jagatis, having Vasantotsava and Kalyana Mantapas. Beside them are small shrines of Alwars and Ramanujacharya. At the left corner of the Prakara is the Soumyanayaki Ammanavaru temple with a Garbhagriha, a Navaranga and a small open Mukhamantapa.

The annual Jatra here is held during Jeshtha when more than 10,000 people assemble. Beside this temple is a small temple of Prasanna Sri Rama , built in Mysore style, Near the Varadaraja temple is the Kundapura Vyasaraya Matha associated with Vyasatirtha, who spent his student days at Abbur near Channapatna. The building has a tiled roof and a spacious hall supported by stone pillars having relief sculptures in Vijayanagara style. The Garbhagriha has a standing image or Srinivasa described an installed by Vyasatirtha. The hall in the front has two entrances, one to the east and the other to the north. The letter entrance leads to a spacious pillared Mantapa also called Purandara Mantapa and has small cell to the right, facing west. It is said that while Vyasatirtha worshipped the image here, Purandaradasa had visited the place and had danced singing Keertanas in front of the image.

This Mantapa is believed to have been built by Purandaradasa out of his earnings from aims. No in the centre of the Mantapa is a grilled enclosure and inside are placed recent images of Purandara and Vijayadasa. One of the pillars in this Mantapa has a fine sculpture described as of Vyasatirtha. The Purandaradasa Aradhane is held here annually. In front of the main building is another small shrine of Anjaneya and the deity is said to have been installed by Vyasatirtha. Facing the Vyasaraya Matha is one more temple of Anjaneya . Beside the road, facing the Varadaraja temple is one more Anjaneya shrine are there is a Kannada inscription built in the front entrance. This record is dated 1553 A.D. of Sadashivaraya of Vijayanagara and mentions Channapatna sine, and the rest of it is defaced.

Inside the town are temples of Lakshminarayana and Nilakanteshwara. The latter appears to be an 18th century construction as the pillars of the Mukhamantapa and outer Mantapa are in Mysore style. This is a huge structure with one Garbhagriha, two Ardhamantapas and a spacious Navaranga. The Navaranga is rectangular with four central pillars having several modern images engraved on them. The Nandi facing the Garbhagriha is of Mysore times. It is locally said that this temple was built by Jagadevaraya, a feudatory at Channapatna. The Neelakantaha Linga is very tall and has an appearances of greater antiquity. One more Nandi is placed in the spacious open Mukhamantapa and it is said to have been brought from the precincts of the taluk office. The pillars of the Mukhamantapa contain fine relief sculptures of Shaiva Purana episodes.

There are also many Bhakta images. One more Linga with a seven hooded Naga canopying it is placed in the Navaranga and the either sides of the Navaranga entrance are two cells having image of Narayanaswamy (to the left) and a marble image of Adi Shankaracharya (to the right). Outside, to the left of the Central Garbhagriha , is a separate shrine of Prasanna Parvati. There is a gateway in the front and its tower is said to have been built in 1970. The monument is well preserved. Special Poojas are offered in Kartika and on Mahashivaratri day when thousands of people visit the temple. Near this temple, to the west is another temple dedicated to Lakshmi-Narayanaswamny. It is renovated very recently. The main structure is in post-Vijayanagara style. Inside the Garbhagriha is the large of Narayana seated, with his consort Lakshmi also seated on his lap. This has later Vijayanagara features. Inside the Ardhamantapa is a Narasimha Kamba. To the entrance of the Ardhamantapa are two Dwarapalaka images. Outside the temple to the right is a small shrine of Anjaneya. Above the Garbhagriha is a mortar Shikara by Mysore rulers. In the front of the Navaranga is a modern hall and after this is an open Mukhamantapa with original pillars. Other temples of the town are Marikamba, Verrabhadra, Sugreeva, Rama etc. Modern shrine of Kannikaparameshwari and Saibaba Mandira are also found.

The place has many Muslim monuments. In the Daira locality, there are nearly 33 mosques belonging to the Mahadeeya community. The Jamia Masjid (of Hyder's times) in the Syedwadi area is the oldest Mosque in the place. In the Bade Makhan locality at the entrance of the town, is an old Mosque of the same period. Nearby there is a Dargah ascribed to Syed Aqil Shah Khadri, who is described as preceptor of Nawab Haider Ali. A copper plate of Krishnaraja Wodeyer II of Mysore dated 1759 speaks of Mogehalli village being granted as `Fakirdharma' at the instance of Haider Ali. Haider also donated the Maganur village to "Khadir Shah Sahib Matha" in 1761, perhaps to this very institution. The tombs are in a spacious hall, about 20 feet square and its ceiling has a dome in Mughal style with a bulbose body placed on a floral base, surmounted by a Kalasha.

A verandah runs around the square structure and the stone pillars on the west are designed as those of a temple. The Urus is held annually when more than 5,000 people assemble. The building is surrounded by a number of tombs. One more Dargah ascribed to Syed Ibrahaim, a Commandant of Tippu Sultan is situated on the Bangalore road, facing east. It has a small central dome which is less squattish than that of the other tombs and has a Kalasha stop. The main door has a tablet over the lintel stating that "tomb of Sayyed Ibrahim, Commandant of Bangalore". Near this Dargah outside is the tomb of Ummar Khan. It is said that it has a large underground chamber in which hangs a cradle. Across the main road near the tank are two Dargahs ascribed to Rouse-Ullah-Shah and Huzur Ali Shah. The Urus is held here during Rajjab. In the front area are two mosques, locally called Badi Maszid and Madina Maszid.

In the Pattanawadi extension is one more Dargah ascribed to Syedanibi and nor- mally silk merchants and bidi workers visit it. The two also has Arabic schools called Ashrafia Daira School and Mohammaids Arabic School in the Syedwadi area. There is one more Arabic School called Madina Arabic School in the fort area where religious education is imparted. The place has St.Joseph's Church, of the Roman Catholics, built in 1955. There is one more Church of the Protestants called C.S.I. Bethany Church, a recent structure. This Church is also running a Bethemy Ashrama, a centre of the Old Aged destitutes. Buchanan, who visited the place in 1900 calls to a very beautiful country full of trees and also states that the place had 1,000 houses. He refers to numerous coconut gardens and sugarcane fields. He also speaks of the industries producing bottles and bangles, steel wires and Sugar and Jaggery. Channapatna has many industries and of these Government Spun Silk Factory (1936) in Mangalvarpet is notable. {Chikkamalur} (3 km of Channapatna, now a part of the Channapatna Town Municipality ) is situated on the left bank of the Kanva river.

This was an old Agrahara under the Cholas and the Hoysalas. The place has temples dedicated to Arakeshwara, Gopalaswami and Kalleshwara. The Arkeshwara temple across the main road is a simple structure in Chola-Hoysala style with a small Garbhagriha, an Ardhamantapa and a spacious Navaranga. The Navaranga has four very plain octagonal pillars with a dancing dias in the centre. The pillars have no ornamentation. On the outer walls of the Garbhagriha are typical pilasters and niches in early Hoysala style. To the north of the Navaranga is a door leading to a small chamber with a brick niche in which perhaps was formerly housed a Devi image. Inside the Navaranga are placed fine images of Saptamatrikas, Virabhadra (with Veena), Shanmukha, Varadaraja and Surya. The Ardhamantapa has three Ankanas extending from north to south, and then a smaller Ardhamantapa leading to the Garbhagriha. The Linga installed over a tall Panipeetha appears to be of the Chola- Ganga times. There is a spacious inner Prakara around the temple.

The Gopalaswamy temple inside the village proper is in Chola-Hoysala style. It has a Garbhagriha, two Ardhamantapas, and Mukhamantapa. The pillars of the M ukhamantapa and the doorway of the Navaranga appear to be in the 14th century style. They bear many Tamil and Grantha inscriptions. One dated about 1100 A.D. records that this pillar was the donation of one official Tiruvirunda Perumal of Tirumayilapura. Second pillar record also of the same date mentions that it was donated by another official Suraiyadevar of Kundur. The third pillar record states that one official Odalam Solan Muttipillai caused its erection. The pillars have fluted shafts and on the cubical mouldings appear various bas-relief sculpture of Narasimha, Janardhana, Venugopala, a lady feeding a deer etc. The pillars are elegant and are crowned with capitals having pendent drop brackets. There are Dwarapalas at the entrance of the Navaranga which are very crude.

The Hoysala style Venugopala image inside the Garbhagriha is about one metre tall. The Prabhavali with Makaratorana has Dashavathara images. There are Chola pilasters on the outer walls of the Garbhagriha. The Shikhara over it appear to have been renovated by the Vijayanagara rulers. To the north-west of the Gopalaswamy temple on the right bank of the river is a small temple of Kalleshvara with a large Kalyani to its north. The temple of Kalleshvara with a large Kalyani to its north. The temple appears to be a Chola construction and bears numerous Tamil inscripections on its pillars and walls. The temple appears to have been renovated with brick and mortar during late Vijayanagara period. The pillars of the Navaranga are sixteen-sided and fluted type with sculptured cubical mouldings. The Navaranga and Ardhamantapa doors have the {rudraksha} bead {motifs.} The Linga inside the Garbhagriha is a small one on a square pedestal. {Devara Hosahalli} (3 km from Channapatna) situated across the railway line to the east of the Channapatna town is a popular pilgrimage centre in the taluk.

The place is noted for a Vijayanagara temple of Prasanna Anjaneya . It has a squarish Garbhagriha with a standing profile image (1.5 metres tall) of Anjaneya ascribed to Vyasatirtha. There is a Shala Shikhara over the Garbhagriha. There is no Ardhamantapa. The spacious Navaranga has square pillars with circular capitals at the top and many of them have the Vijayanagara {lanchana} represented by the divine boar, dagger and sun and moon. The deity is believed to be having healing powers and hence is called Sanjeevaraya. Crude carvings with names of individuals coming for treatment of mental diseases are engraved all round the floor of the courtyard inside. The annual Jatra is held on Ashadha Suddha Dwadashi when more than 20,000 people assemble, coming from for off places. The place also has a Lakshmi temple described as the Gramadevata. There is a store inscription near the local tank stating that Machegavunda built a tank with sluice and granted lands for its upkeep.

Another damaged record in a grave speaks of land transaction by one Tondanayaka son of Timmenayaka. Both these records have only cyclic years (Cp 192 and 193). {Brahmanipura} (Channapatna tq; P:1774) situated (five km from Channapatna) on a deviation road from Channapatna-Revanashideheswara Betta was an Agrahara. It is said to have been granted by King Krishnadevaraya to the Maadhwa saint Brahmanyatirtha of Abbur. At the inter-section of the deviation road is an Anjaneya temple built in Mysore style. Inside the village is one more Anjaneya temple ascribed to the Vijayanagara period. The present structure is a tiled one with a stone Garbhagriha and an Ardhamantapa. The image of Anjaneya is said to have been installed by celebrated Maadhwa saints Brahmanyatirtha, Sripadaraja and Vyasatirtha together.The image, one metre tall, is a profile one in relief, neatly executed with Rama, Lakshmana and Sita at the top. One copper plate recod from the same place is dated 1758 A.D. by Srirangaraja (7) mentioning the gift of a village Budinatta in Talingunte Hobli to some Lakshmidharatirtha and donor is an official named Masti Krishnarajagaudarayya. The place also has recently built temples of Lakshmi and Masanathamma. At a distance of two km from the village is a small hillock having a Narasimhswamy temple. There is a cave near it to which Brahmanya Tirtha is said to have performed penance.


DEVANHALLI
Brief History of Devanahalli
Devanahalli taluk situated 36 kms from Bangalore has four major hobli centres as follows:

a) Vijayapura Hobli
b) Channarayapatna Hobli
c) Kundana Hobli
d) Kasaba Hobli

And taluk has got 21 grama panchayaths having 44,935 hectares of area covered and mainly the village persons depend upon silk based activity like reeling,Weaving,Twisting type of industries and other rural industries like carpentry, Masonary ,stone cutting and based upon the artisan orientation in the taluk, the multipurpose co-op societies are being existed.

1) Taluk Level Artisan's Multipurpose Co-op Society (Devanahalli).

2) Taluk Level Artisan's Stone-cutter's Multipurpose Co-op Society(Devanahalli).

DEVANAHALLI , a town situated at a distance of 39 km from Bangalore, is a taluk headquarters and is mentioned variously in several records as Devanapura, Devandanahalli, etc. In about 1501, Mallabhaire Gowda of Avati is said to have built a fort with the consent of `Deva' a feudatory at Devanadoddi and changed the name of the place to the Devanahalli. In 1747 Mysore dynasty conquered the place. The Marathas conquered it several times from Mysore . The remains of this fort were formerly seen inside the present fort. The present fort with large and tall walls having bastions at suitable points is acri-bed to Haider and Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan also changed the name of the place as Yousafabad (the abode of Yosuf, the finest man), a name which however never became popular. Since Devanahalli was his birth-place, Tipu `frequently undertook hunting as well as pleasure excursion to this place', says Kirmani.

There is a memorial now at the birth place of Tipu Sultan outside the fort. It is about six feet tall with a pillared enclosure and square top and bears a stone tablet. It has a n enclosure. The area called Khas Bagh, now contains many tamarind trees, a few mango trees and a small dried pond. It was once an enchanting spot, being Tipu's private park. Inside the fort are temples dedicated to Venugopalaswamy, Nanjundeshwara, Chandramauleshwara, Veerabhadraswamy, Ranganathaswamy, Kalamma, Balagopala (old), Nagareshwara and Basaveshwara. The Venugopalaswamy temple has a tall Rayagopura at the entrance and has a spacious inner Prakara. At the entrance are placed two Vishnu statutes of Ganga times, said to have been ground from Gangavara village. The images are impressive and one of them has a Prayogachakra in one hand, Shankha, Abahaya and Gada being the attributes of remaining hands.

The Garbhagriha has a standing Venugopala image of Vijayanagara style. There is a Dravidian Shikhara over it. The Navaranga has four black stoned pillars carved with fine relief sculptures on all sides, such as Hayagriva, dancing female figures with attendant musicians, a conch blower, a Kinnara with the lower portion of his body in bird form, a huntress removing a thorn from her leg, etc. The Mukhamantapa has niches over the frontroof. They have fine stucco figures. The brick Shikhara two many stucco figures alround. The outer walls have a frieze of large images illustrating scenes mostly from the Ramayana.

The story of Balakandais well illustrated by the figures on the north and south walls. A portion of the frieze on the north will have interesting scenes like Rishyashringa being brought from the forest to Ayodhya by dancing girls, asharatha performing the sacrifice with the help of Rishyshringa and other sages. The story is continued on the south wall upto the Ahalyoddahara episode. A frieze on the east wall to the left of the entrance represents the story of Vishwamitra teaching archery to Ramaand a portion of the south wall also illustrates the sports of child Krishna and by its side are the Dashavataras of Vishnu. In a cell is the Prakara is kept an artistically executed gild vehicle of god called Chitragopura-Vahana with two female figures standing on either sides.

This Utsava is held on the Chaitra Poornima (April) every year. It is said that a grand illumination is arranged on this day and one lakh lamps are lit. A silver cup and a bronze gong belonging to the temple bear inscriptions stating that they were presents from Haider and one Dondu Raghunath, a subordinate of the Peshawa Balaji Rao respectively. The Nanjundeshwara temple is a small building with two cells in a line and a common Navaranga. It is said that this was earlier called Kashi Vishveshwara and is regarded as the oldest temple in the town. All the door ways of this temple are well served. The Dwarapalakas at the entrance of the Ardhamantapa have over them pilasters carved with the vase and creeper motifs. To the left of the Navaranga are images of Narayana, Takshaka, Brahma, Karkotaka, Saraswati, and Subhrahmanya etc.The Chandramauleshwara temple with a spacious inner Prakara is built in Vijayanagara style. The Garbhagriha has a Shivalinga and there are two cells on either sides with images of Ganapati and Parvati enshrined respectively. There is a Siddheswara temple (Matha) of the Veerashiva Community with a seated figure, about one-and-half metre high of Siddeshwara with two hands, the left holding a Linga and the right offering worship.

The place also has a Mahantha Matha. The large pond knows as Sarovara is said to have been built by DewanPurnaiah and the Anjaneya in the Shrine near it is called Sarovaranjaneya. The ngamma temple of the fisherman community has a fine stucco seated image, about five feet high of the Goddess with four hands holding trident, a drum, a sword and a Panapatra in them. There is a small hillock on the Avati road called Parvatagudda having shrines of Anjaneya and Verrabhadra on it. The last mentioned is enshrined in a small cavern and there is also a small stream. The place also has a mosque of Tipu's times with pleasing minars. Devanahalli has a traditional school of sculpture called `Shilpakala Shala' which was being run by great sculptor A.C.Hanumantacharya.

DODDABALLAPUR
Brief note of the Doddaballapura Taluk

Doddaballapura taluk comes under Bengaluru Rural district. The total geographical area covered 78760 hectares and having five Hoblies namely:

a) Doddabelavangala
b) Thubagere
c) Sasalu
d) Madure
e) Kasaba

Doddaballapura Taluk has 29 grama panchayaths. The main activity of the taluk is manufacturing of silk clothes by power looms and other activities of the taluk are manufacturing of Veena and Thamburi, Pottery works, Agarbatti etc. There are also different types of small scale and large scale industries setup in the industrial area and industrial estate.

DODBALLAPUR situated to the north-west of Bangalore is a sub-division and taluk centre. The place is covered on the north and north-west by a chain of mountains and offers an uneven land-scape with partially plain land area, and is on the bank of the river Arkawati. The place is directly connected by railway. Dodballapur was a celebrated commercial centre right from the Hoysala period. There is also a view that the town was founded by a feudatory Malbhairegowda of the Avati clan. Perhaps he fortified the existing town. During the period between the 16th-17th centuries, Dodballapur was administered by a branch of the Avathi clan. Towards 1637-38, the place was occupied by the Bijapur Commander Ranadaula Khan. For the next forty years, Dodballapur continued to be in the hands of the Bijapur Sultans, being a part of Shahji's Bangalore Jahgir.

In 1689, it is taken by the Mughals, when the place was in the hands of Sambhaji, son of Shivaji, the latter having taken it from his brother Ekoji. The place was presented as a Jahgir to a Muslim chief Ali Khuli Khan. After his death, his son Darga Khuli Khan, the Nawab of Sira, received the town for a temporary period of one year as Jahgir. Later, for a span of fifty years, the place was under the Nawab of Sira when the Nizam of Hyderabad took over administration. It is described that one feudatory Abbas Khan received Dodballapur as Jahagir. In 1761, Haider Ali annexed the region and subsequently it passed on to the Wodeyars of Mysore. The place name Dodballapur is so named to distinguish it from Chikballapur.

The place is found mentioned as Ballalapura thanya in a record dated 1598 AD from the local Adinarayana temple. It might have originated from Hoysala name Ballala, and later corrupted as Ballapura. According to a legend the place derived its name from the circumstance that a cow used to drop one `balla' of milk over a certain anthill and this omen led to the foundation of the town. From `balla' the name Ballapura was thus derived. Perhaps from the earliest times, the place is noted for silk weaving industry and many weavers also migrated to Bangalore from here. There is an extension in Bangalore called Ballapura Pete (present Rangaswamy gudibeedi). The town evidenced some disturbances during the Nagar uprising in 1830 when a large number of people from Madhugiri came to protest against the act of the Tahshildar of Dodballapur (one Venkatakrishniah), who during his term of office at Madhugiri as Tahshildar had failed to make proper adjustment of the revenue collected.

Of the many monuments seen in Dodballapur, the Ashur Khana and a big stone well are important. The Ashur Khana is said to have been built by Abbas Khuli Khan. It is a fine building in Indo- sarcenic style with a spacious compound having a tall enclosure on all the sides. Presently, the building is used for running a Urdu Primary School. The fort walls are not seen now, but the area has many fallen buildings and house foundations. A Hoysala stone inscription dated 1267 A.D. (now preserved in the taluk office) is of special interest as its top portion is used for inscribing a Persian record as well.

This Persian record dated 1691 A.D. is of the time of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. It says that in the 34th year of the reign of Aurangzeb (1689), the fort of Balapura - kariyat was in the hands of Samba Dud (Sambhaji), son of Siva Dud (Shivaji) and it came into the possession of the supreme Government and that in the 34th year of the reign, it was granted to one Shekh Abdhulla from Delhi. The place has four mosques of which, the Jamia Masjid near Ashur Khana is the biggest. There are seven Dargahs acribed to Ali Khuli Khan, Mohibuddin Allah-ud-din Chisti, Gauhar ullah Shah, Dilawar Ullah Shah, Hasan Shah and Kambal Posh Khadri. The Dargah of Mohiuddin Alla-ud-din Chisti is a fine structure. The Urus here is held during Safar when about 2,000 people assemble and special qawali programmes are also held. The Peers, Gauhar-Ullah-Shah and Kausar-Ullah-shah are said to be contemporaries. The Uruses of both of these take place during Safar. The last mentioned Kambal Posh Khadri Dargah is situated at the outskirts of the town over a tank-bund. The Urus at Dilawar-Ullah Shah is annually held around April.

The town has important temples such as Venkataramana, Chowdeshwari, Ishawara, Someshwara, Janardana, Kashi Vishveshwara, Nagareshwara and Arkavati. The Venkataramana temple is a huge structure covered with a vast compound. The compound with stucco decorations has impact of Muslim architecture. In front of the square Garbhagriha is an oblong Navaranga having two cells with images of Padmavati in the left one and Vinayaka in the right one. Facing the Navaranga is a spacious horizontal Mukhamantapa having fine relief sculptures over its later Vijayanagara pillars.

Over the Hara of the Mukhamantapa are small mortar niches having impressive stucco figures depicting the Bhagavatha episodes. The temple has a spacious inner Prakara with an outer Pradakshinapatha. At the entrance of the temple is a Rayagopura in recent style. There is a Shikara over the Garbhagriha built in later Vijayanagara style. The temple is believed to have been constructed towards the end of 18th century by a local officer under Haider called Arunachala Panth. Two relief images inside described to be of the Arunachala Panth and his wife Sehshamma on a pillar have been covered with plaster. Inside the temple, over a platform is kept a stone image of Lakshminarayana in Vijayanagara style, measuring about one and a half metre in height, said to have been brought from the local Adinarayana temple.

The annual car festival in honour of lord Venkataramana is held on Magha Poornima day and the Jatra is held for a span of nine days, when about 10,000 people assemble. To the south of the Venkataramana temple is the temple of Arunachaleswara, also acribed to the same Arunachala Panth, built during the same time. This had been repeatedly renovated. It has a central Garbhagriha with two more cells built adjacently on either sides, having images of Ganapathi and Parvati. Facing this is a Mukhamantapa with pillars in later Vijayanagara characters. Beside this temple is the local Shankara Matha having images of Sharada, Adi Shankara and Vinayaka. Nearby, in the Devanagapete is the Chowdeshwari temple (renovated, described as over 300 years old.

There are three Garbhagrihas in a row housing Shivalinga (central), Chowdeshwari and four mosques of which, the Jamia Masjid near Ashur Khana is the biggest. There are seven Dargahs acribed to Ali Khuli Khan, Mohibuddin Allah-ud-din Chisti, Gauhar ullah Shah, Dilawar Ullah Shah, Hasan Shah and Kambal Posh Khadri. The Dargah of Mohiuddin Alla-ud-din Chisti is a fine structure. The Urus here is held during Safar when about 2,000 people assemble and special qawali programmes are also held. The Peers, Gauhar-Ullah-Shah and Kausar-Ullah-shah are said to be contem- poraries. The Uruses of both of these take place during Safar. The last mentioned Kambal Posh Khadri Dargah is situated at the outskirts of the town over a tank-bund. The Urus at Dilawar-Ullah Shah is annually held around April.

The town has important temples such as Venkataramana, Chowdeshwari, Ishawara, Someshwara, Janardana, Kashi Vishveshwara, Nagareshwara and Arkavati. The Venkataramana temple is a huge structure covered with a vast compound. The compound with stucco decorations has impact of Muslim architecture. In front of the square Garbhagriha is an oblong Navaranga having two cells with images of Padmavati in the left one and Vinayaka in the right one. Facing the Navaranga is a spacious horizontal Mukhamantapa having fine relief sculptures over its later Vijayanagara pillars.

Over the Hara of the Mukhamantapa are small mortar niches having impressive stucco figures depicting the Bhagavatha episodes. The temple has a spacious inner Prakara with an outer Pradakshinapatha. At the entrance of the temple is a Rayagopura in recent style. There is a Shikara over the Garbhagriha built in later Vijayanagara style. The temple is believed to have been constructed towards the end of 18th century by a local officer under Haider called Arunachala Panth. Two relief images inside described to be of the Arunachala Panth and his wife Sehshamma on a pillar have been covered with plaster.

Inside the temple, over a platform is kept a stone image of Lakshminarayana in Vijayanagara style, measuring about one and a half metre in height, said to have been brought from the local Adinarayana temple. The annual car festival in honour of lord Venkataramana is held on Magha Poornima day and the Jatra is held for a span of nine days, when about 10,000 people assemble. To the south of the Venkataramana temple is the temple of Arunachaleswara, also acribed to the same Arunachala Panth, built during the same time.

This had been repeatedly renovated. It has a central Garbhagriha with two more cells built adjacently on either sides, having images of Ganapathi and Parvati. Facing this is a Mukhamantapa with pillars in later Vijayanagara characters. Beside this temple is the local Shankara Matha having images of Sharada, Adi Shankara and Vinayaka. Nearby, in the Devanagapete is the Chowdeshwari temple (renovated, described as over 300 years old. There are three Garbhagrihas in a row housing Shivalinga (central), Chowdeshwari and Parvati. There is a small Navaranga totally renovated. After this is a frontal Mantapa built in 1845.

Of the other temples in the place, mention may be made of Kashi Vishweshara (renovated), Someshwara (outside the town), Kalika Kamateshwara, Nagareshwara and Vaikunta Janardhana. The Kalika Kamatesh- wara temple is perhaps the oldest and has two typical Vijayanagara pillars with jumping hypogriff motifs. The Vaikuntha Janardhana temple near the bus stand is built in later Vijayanagara style. The outer Mantapa has pillars in Mysore style with fine relief sculptures. The Nagareshwara temple has three Garbhagrihas in a row with images of Ganapati, Linga and Parvati enshrined in them.

The place has a Raghavendra Matha built around 1964. There is a Shaiva Matha opposite Kashi Vishveshwara temple, with a Gudduge ascribed to a saint Shankara Shivananda Gaganarya. Inside the taluk office compound is an ordinary Marti temple around which are many antiquities like images of Mahishamardini (Ganga times) and Durga and broken pieces of Hoysala pillars. The pillars might belong to the Gavareshwara temple in the fort area as referred by the Hoysala stone record dated 1267 A.D. also preserved in the taluk office. The very name `Gavareshwara' suggest that the temple must have been patron deity of the merchants and the temple has received a grant from the traders of Rajaghatta as per the above record. The town also has a Mahaveera Svetambara Basti built recently in north Indian style. The place has a Catholic Church. The place was a centre of freedom movement with T.Siddalingayya, the first president of Mysore Congress hailing from here. On the Bangalore road is an industrial area housing many modern industries like Himatsingka Saide producing silk fabrics or Dodballapur Spinning Mill.

HOSKOTE
Brief History of Hoskote
Hoskote taluk is a part of Bengaluru Rural district 25km away from Bangalore city. Hoskote taluk consists of 5 Hoblis namely:

a) Sulibele
b) Anugondanahalli
c) Jadagenahalli
d) Kasaba
e) Nandagudi

Hoskote taluk has 34 Grama panchayats. This taluk has geographical area of 54,857 hectares. The people of this taluk are mainly depending on agriculture. The Bee keeping is based on agriculture, Horticulture and Forest. There is a good source and potential for Bee keeping in this taluk. The Bee keeping is also considered as rural industry. The Bee keeping industry has covered 49 villages and there are 226 Bee keepers, who are maintaining 358 Bee colonies i.e., Apiaries cerena indica. The state government is providing training programmes and issuing Bee inputs under 60% subsidy to lift up the bee keeping in large scale. The main object of the bee keeping is to get good yeild of the crops through cross pollination from bees like honey, bee wax etc. There are two government apiaries of artisan training institute, one at taluk panchayath premises in Hosakote town and another apiary at adarsha grama yojana, Sonnallipura.

HOSKOTE , 12 km from Bangalore was a pre-historic centre. According to a copper plate grant dated 1494, given to a Veerashiva Matha the place was founded by Thamme Gowda, the chief of Sugatur. The place is also noted for a large tank with an embankment which is two miles long, and when full, forms a sheet of water not less than 12 km in circumference. Thammegowda is said to have constructed this tank and by raising an armed force, he annexed places like Anekal, Mulbagal and Punganur (A.P.). His successors ruled till 1638 A.D. (see chapter II). Shortly after, the territory was conquered by the Bijapur army and subsequently conferred as a Jahgir on Shahji, who resided at Bangalore. He had an officer called Yeshwantrao posted here. On the capture of these districts by the Mughal army under Khasim Khan in 1687, they became part of the Sira Province. In 1756, Hoskote was taken by the Mysore army, but was subdued by the Marathas (Peshwa). It changed hands several times until it was finally annexed by Haider Ali in 1761 A.D.

The old fort area has the Avimukteshwara, Varadaraja and the Vithoba temples. The Avimukteshwara is a very large Dravidian structure ascribed to Thammegowda, the chief of Sugatur. It has three cells in a line, the middle cell enshrining a figure of Virabhadra, the one to the right Shivalinga and other to the left Parvati. There is an oblong Ardhamantapa with its entrance having Dwarapalakas. There is a spacious Navaranga with rows and rows of Vijayanagar pillars having very interesting reliefs sculptures depicting Shaiva episodes. Inside the Navaranga are placed impressive sculptures of Ganapati (two handed) and Subrhamanya (with two hands) having early Vijayanagara features. In front of the temple is a fine Dipasthambha, about 7.5 metres tall with a circular pedestal. It is in the Maratha style. On a pillar to the left of the Mukhamantapa is carved a standing figure of a Bhakta, described as representing the chief Thamme Gowda. A similar figure is also seen on one of the pillars of the Kalyana Mantapa. Behind the temple (outside) was an ashmound and many stone tools had been loacted. Other temples of the place are Varadaraja, Anjaneya (two), Vithala (Panduranga), Kashi Vishveshwara, Sri Rama etc. The

Varadaraja temple has two Garbhagrihas, with the central one having a standing image of late Vijayanagara workmanship and the left cell has the seated image of Devi. The pillars of the Navaranga are in Vijayanagar style (renovated) and have many relief sculptures. It has been said that the temple was renovated around 1830 by the then Tahsildar Biligiri Rao. He is also said to have built the Anjaneya temple (also called Agrahara Anjaneya) near the tank sluice. Another Anjaneya temple in the fort area has a tall image in profile, about one metre height. An unpublished Tamil record is seen near this (pete Anjaneya) temple. This temple which appears to have been renovated rcently has a Navaranga having four beautifully carved black stone pillars. It is said that they originally belong to an old Shiva temple of Dravidian style. Some of the relief sculptures here depicting Shiva Purana episodes are of fine quality. Among the interesting are a huntress armed, with bow and arrow removing a thorn from one of the legs, Tandaveshvara with Vishnu as a drummer and Brahma and Subrahmanya as attendant musicians, Narasimha as a drummer, Bedara Kannappa, Yama seizing Markandeya, Bhikshatana Shiva resting his right hand on a basket borne on the head of a dwarf and receiving alms from a woman, etc.

The Vithala (Panduranga) temple also has three cells in a row and the central cell has a good image of Vithala about one metre tall, flanked by consorts. Two pillars in the temple are in Vijayanagara style. The deity stands with his two hands placed on the waist. The right cell has figures of Garuda and Ganapathi and the left a figure of Hanuman. The main gate of the fort itself appears to have been used as entrance to the temple, and touching this entrance are remains of fortification. From the records in the possession of the priest of the Vithalaswamy temple, we learn that it was built around the middle of the 17th century by Raghunath Bhavji, Subedar of Hoskote Paragana at the instance of the Peshwa. The village Turugalur (Malur tq) has been granted to the deity as per this rcord. The place has two Veerashaiva Mathas called Mahantaiah Matha (also called Chilume Matha) and Virattayya Matha. The last mentioned is about 1.5 km outside the town. The former is called `Chilume' as it has a perennial spring in the form of well which supplies good drinking water to a portion of the town. The Virattayya Matha is a large building with several sculptured pillars and it is also said to have been constructed by Tammegowda.

Behind the Matha is a fine well faced with dressed stone slabs on all sides. In a private garden are a few Masti-stones which differ in some respects from all other such stones in other parts of the old Mysore area. One of them shows a male figure armed with daggers in both hands, the right hand being raised; while a female holds in her left hand a water vessel and the right hand placed on the belly. In the municipal garden is a small building, where many sculptures like a number of Nandis, images of Vishnu, Virabhadra, Ganapati, a Saptamatrika panel, one Masti stone, etc. are preserved. The town also has shrines of Nagareshwara, Maravva, Venugopala, Kalamma (old) etc.The annual Karaga and the Avimukteshwara Jatra are held in April-May (Chaitra-Poornima) when more than 10,000 people gather. There are four mosques in the town. In a private garden near the fort is a Dargah ascribed to Saballi Sab Ali Sab, who is said to have lived about 200 years ago. The Urus here is held during Ramzan. Near this, across the field is a small Hanuman temple with Vijayanagara pillars, and names of many devotees are engraved on them such as Appaji, Muddamma, Gopali, Chikkamuddappa, Nagisetti, Ballappa, etc. There is also an old temple tank here. Another Dargah situated near the old mosque in the town is ascribed to Sailab Ali Shah and the Urus is held in the month of Bakrid.

KANAKAPURA
Brief note on Kanakapura taluk
The taluk has geographical area of 1,59,426 Hectares consisting of 6 hoblis namely:

a) Kasaba
b) Harohalli
c) Maralawadi
d) Kodihalli
e) Sathanur
f) Uyyamballi

There are 43 Grama Panchayaths in the taluk. The main potentiality of this taluk is Granite quaries. The industrial activities include Silk Reeling, Twisting, Powerlooms, Brick Industries,. Bamboo activities, Pottery and other rural industries. The people of this taluk mainly depend on Agriculture. Bee keeping based on Agriculture, Horticulture and forest is also followed here. The Kanakapura taluk has rich potential for Bee keeping which is termed as rural and cottage industry. The Bee keeping industry has covered 38 villages and there are 150 bee keepers who are maintaining 300 bee colonies (Apiaries). The State Government is providing training facilities to rural people to encourage bee keeping in rural area. The Government is also supplying bee samples under 60% subsidy of the normal cost through Zilla Panchayath to uplift bee keeping inRural area. The main object of bee keeping is to get good yield in crops through cross pollination from bees in order to get honey, bee wax etc.

The main tourist attraction of this place is Sangama and Mekedatu.

KANAKAPURA situated to the (56 km from Bangalore ) South of Bangalore is on the right bank of the river Arkavati. The place was originally under the Gangas and later under the Cholas, who administered it as a part of Kilalainad. Later, the Hoysalas made it a major headquarters of a province (`sime’). Its name was changed as Kanakapura from its original Kanakanahalli. But earlier it is mentioned as `Kanikaranahalli’ in two Hoysala records dated 1319 and 1317 A.D. from Hachchalu and Nyakanahalli (Kanakapura tq) villages respectively. Even a recent record dated 1662 A.D. by Mysore rulers from Malagala also mention the place as `Kanikaranahalli’ being the headquarters of a `sime’.

The local people universally call it as `Kanikaranahalli’, which is otherwise corrupted as Kankanahalli, says Buchanan. He further says Kanikaranahalli has a Tamil origin - `Kani + Karna’ or `Kanikara’ signifies a proprietor of land. `Kanikara’ literally means an accountant (Karnika) or a teller of fortune. The fort here is said to have been erected by Jagadeva Raya, the chief of Channapatna. The remains of the fort can be now seen near the Arkavati bridge. The town was twice burns or laid waste by Tipu Sultan to prevent its being of use to the British army of their march to Shrirangapattana. The place was consequered by Mysore rulers in 1630 A.D.

The place has temples dedicated to Ranganatha, Valakotamma, Kodandarama, Anjaneya (two), etc. The Ranganatha temple is a huge structure with a spacious inner Prakara and a gateway having a Rayagopura. Over the Mukhamantapa along the hara are niches enshrining stucco images representing Dashavatara. The pillars of this Mantapa are in Vijayanagara style with a cell to the right having images of Rama, Lakshmana and Seetha. Facing this is a shrine with a seated image of Anjaneya. The Navaranga has a seated image of Vishnu with attributes like Shankha, Chakra, Gada and Abhaya. Perhaps, this must have been the main deity as it is locally said that the present image of Srinivasa was installed as the original image was broken.

The central garbhagriha has a Shala Shikhara. There is an Ardhamantapa having niches without images. Beside the main sanctum is another cell outside to the right having a recent image of Ranganatha. To the left of the main temple is another shrine of a Padmavati with a small Ardhamantapa and a Navaranga. The annual Jatra is held for a span of nine days beginning from Ugadi, when a cattle fair is also held. The Ganesha temple is an ordinary square structure having an image in Vijayanagara style. In front of this is a modern Kalyanamantapa. The Kodandarama temple is also an ordinary structure in Vijayanagara style. The Garbhagriha has a brick and mortar Shikhara. There is an open Mukhamantapa in front of the spacious Navaranga.

Facing this temple is about the Kote Anjaneya, a small structure. The Kenkeramma temple is about 200 years old with a huge compound. The deity is regarded as Grama-devate, will have special attraction for the devotees during its Jatra held for a week after Ugadi when about 5000 people assemble. Nearby is another Anjaneya temple whose image is believed to have been installed by Vyasateertha. The Valakotamma, another temple of the village deity has an image resembling Durga. The place has one Veersashiva Matha called Degula Matha. It has a stone inscription dated 1667 of Devaraja Wodeyar of Mysore, announcing certain grants made in the Virupasamudra village of one Timmamma, mother of a Dalavayi to the Matha. The place has three mosques and the Jamia mosque inside the town is old, perhaps of Tipu’s time. There are three Dargahs one ascribed to Hazrath Syed Yakhub Ali, who is said to have lived here about 200 years ago.

The Urus is held at this Dargah during the month of Bakrid when more than 5,000 people assemble. The second Dargah is ascribed to Kambli Peer and the Urus is held during Ramzan. There is also one more Dargah ascribed to Khan Khan Sab, an official perhaps of Tipu’s times and the Urus is held here during Ramzan. The place has a Roman Catholic church locally called the St. Rita’s built in 1964. Tippu was running a huge workshop at Kanakapura with a steel foundry. The place has a Government Silk Filature Factory founded in 1943.

The Rural College here is a good memorial to noted Gandhian constructive worker S. Kari-yappa. Malagala (two km from Kanakapura) situated across the Arkavati river (now within Municipal limits) has a huge temple of Mahadeshwara with a spacious Navaranga, two Ardhamantapas and a Garbhagriha. Over the Garbhagriha is a brick and mortar Shikhara with many stucco images. The pillars of the Navaranga are in later Vijayanagara style. This temple is older than those in Kanakapura proper. To the left of the main temple is a separate modern shrine of Parvati. Outside the temple are two inscriptions. One damaged record dated 1375 A.D. of Bukkarya Odeya’s son Harihara Odeya announces one Mahasamanta Dodda Kallimaya Nayaka making some grants to the temple.

The second record dated 1662 of Devaraja Wodeyar of Mysore records rich grants for the maintenance and car festival at the temple of Mahadeshwara and it also mentions `Kanikaranahalli’, obviously referring to Kanakapura. The annual Jatra and the car festival is held during Chaitra. There is also a Sidikamba in wood. Other temples of the place are Morasandamma (Gramadevata) and one more small shrine of Mahadeshwara. Kallahalli (five km from Kanakapura) is to be approached by a deviation road to the left from the Kanakapura-Bangalore road. The place is noted for its huge Srinivasa temple built in Vijayanagara style. The Garbhagriha has a standing image of Srinivasa (about two metres tall). There is a brick and mortar Shikhara over it. There is a spacious Navaranga in front of the Ardhamantapa with plain Vijayanagara pillars. The annual Jatra and car festival is held during Magha Poornima when more than 15 to 20,000 people assemble. The village also has an Anjaneya temple.There is also a choultry managed by the Dharmasthala trust.

MAGADI
Brief note on Magadi Taluk
Magadi taluk comes under Bengaluru Rural district. The total geographical area of the taluk is 79969 hectares. Magadi taluk has five hoblies and thirty two grama panchayaths. The hoblies are as follows:

a) Kasaba
b) Madabal
c) Thippasandra
d) Kudur
e) Solur

The main industrial activity of the taluk is silk twisting and other activity includes, power looms, Bamboo works, Pottery works, Stone cutting, Carpentry works, Agarbathi manufacturing, Ragi cleaning.

MAGADI situated in a valley (51 km from Bangalore) is to be reached by a serpentine ghat road crossing the chain of hills running from Shivaganga through Magadi and Savanadurga. The place name has been referred as Magudi in a record dated 1524 from the same place. There is a tradition that Magadi was founded by a Chola king. It is also described as associated with Sage Mandavya. Under Achuta Raya one Samanta Raya is said to have been appointed to manage the district and he is also said to have fortified the tall hill of Savandurga, in return for which that part of the country was granted to him as a Jahgir.

But no inscriptions supports this tradition and the claim that Savanadurga was named after him is not correct because the place is called `Savandi’ in old records. Immadi Kempe Gowda of Bangalore had this place under his control during the 16th century and the family made Magadi their headquarters in 1638. He and his successors held it in their possession till 1728 when it was captured by the ruler of Mysore. The place has a small fort, the remains of which can be still seen in the town and it is said to have been built by Kempe Gowda in which is situated the temple of Rameshwara, his family God. The ruins of his palace is pointed out to the south-west of this temple, where only broken brick and ruined walls are noticed. The Rameshwara temple in a later Vijayanagara style has a Garbhagriha having a brick and mortar Dravida Shikhara. There is a small Ardhamantapa leading to a Navaranga with frontal Mantapa having square granite pillars. Outside the temple is a spacious inner Prakara and at the backyard are small cells having Panchalingas.

To the west of this is a cell enshrining an image of Parvati set up recently. TheArdhamantapa has a well carved Nandi. There is the Utsavamurti, a metallic image which is a fine figure with two consorts Ganga and Parvatavardhini (ie. Parvati), each one metre tall. It appears that earlier all the government offices were housed inside the fort. Outside the town, on an elevated place is a complex temple of Someshwara said to have been built by Mummadi Kempavira Gauda around 1712 A.D. It has a spacious inner Prakara with two gateways having lofty towers and several fine Mantapas. The main temple faces north. One of the gateway towers is damaged and it is said, it was struck by lightning. To the left of the temple is a fine Mantapa described as Kempegowda’s Hajara having stucco plastered ceiling with impressive painting in attractive colours, now all obliterated.

To its right is another hall described as dancing girl’s Hajara. On the west face of the south pillar of the verandah of this hall is a sculptured male figure seated on a dog. On one of the pillars of the Verandah of the dancing girl’s hall is a figure (about 1.5 feet high) of an old man wearing a cloak and leaning on a staff. This is said to represent one of the Kempe Gowda princes. The Navaranga of the main temple has an appealing ceiling being supported by four pillars, which are well sculptured with fine relief figures representing humans, birds, animals and other floral motifs. The outer Mukhamantapa is open and has huge later Vijayanagara pillars in granite.

The Nandi in theArdhamantapa is well executed. A long inscription is to be seen on the back inner wall of the Garbhagriha. This record dated 1712 A.D. announces that Mummadi Kempegowda made rich grants to God Somesvara in Magadi and specially mentions that the village Shirahalli being given as a gift to the temple. The record also refers to the consecration of the Mahalinga in the temple and also speaks of the installation of Panchalingas in the place. To the left of the main temple is a small shrine having a seated image of Parvati (about one metre tall). The temple has small towers at the four corners of the enclosure and a large pond (Kalyani) at some distance in the front.

One more shrine facing the temple to the left corner is dedicated to Satyanarayanaswami. Its ceiling is also plastered with mortar and now has badly faded painting. To the south-west of the temple, outside the enclosure is a fine shrine of Basava or Nandi with a good tower built on a lofty boulder. It is locally called Shikhara Basava shrine and is a prominent structure visible from a great distance around. A flight of 50 steps leads to it and the Nandi in it is worshipped especially by the Lingayaths on marriages and other occasions. To the east of the traveller’s bungalow at Magadi is a pond built by one official Karnik Krishnamurthy, which is said to be the source of the Kanva river.

Outside the town is the striking monument, the Ranganathaswamy temple, also built in an elevated placed called Swarnadri Parvata. The area in which this temple is situated is called `Tirumale’. There is a vast Prakara with a gateway having tall Rayagopura. The Garbhagriha has a Dravida Shikhara having later Vijayanagara workmanship. The main deity though called Ranganatha is actually a standing image of Nara yana in Vijayanagara style with Shankha, Chakra, Gada and Abhaya attributes in four hands. The main deity is traditionally believed to be installed by Mandavya Rishi. In front of the Ardhamantapa is a spacious Navaranga having square later Vijayanagara pillars.

Behind the Garbhagriha on the wall is a small relief sculpture of reclining Ranganatha traditionally called `Beleyuva Ranganatha’ meaning ever growing deity. Devotees believe that without worshiping this deity, the visit to this holy temple is incomplete. There is a bronze Utsavamurti of the god. Behind the temple is a broad car street. There is an entrance in the outer Prakara leading to the Beleyuva Ranganatha and beside this is a small cell enshrining the image of Ammanavaru. Facing the temple inside the enclosure are two small shrines of Hanumantha (1.5 metres high) and Seetha. Outside the temple on the road behind is another old Anjaneya temple. One more Ranganatha image is housed in a separate cell to the south-west of the main temple, facing east. Nearby over a small hillock (about 200 feet high) is a damaged Narasimha temple to be reached by a flight of steps.

The image is Yoga Narasimha (about quarter metre tall), is broken at the face and has later Vijayanagara features. Viewing from this hillock one can have an aerial view of the town and the nearby hill ranges. The place is said to have Panchalingas (five temples) namely the Someshwara, Kote Rameshwara, Prasanna Rameshwara (near Gowramma tank) Kashi Vishveshwara (in the heart of the town) and the Gavigangadhareshwara. The last mentioned is said to be a cave, about a quarter km from Someshwara temple. Other temples of the place are the Kannika Parameshwari (new), Gramadevata (two) and the Rama Mandira. The place also has a recently founded Sri Raghavendra Matha. On the Kunigal Road, there is a Ganesha shrine on a small hill called as the Prasanna Ganapathi. There are two mosques in the town.

NELAMANGALA
Brief note on Nelamangala Taluk
Nelamangala taluk comes under Bengaluru Rural district and having three hoblies.

a) Kasaba
b) Tyamagondlu
c) Sompura and has 22 grama panchayaths.

The main activity of the taluk is manufacture of silk cloths by using power looms and other activities of the taluk are Agarbatti making, Handicraft articles etc. Also different types of small scale and large scale industries are set up in the industrial area.

NELAMANGALA situated on the National highway (27 km from Bangalore ) is found mentioned as `Nelavangala' a headquarters of a Sime in a record dated 1464 A.D. of a Vijayanagara fedatory from Kanasawadi. One Junjanayaka was the officer in charge of this Sime. The place had the name `Bhumadana' according to some tradition, not confirmed by records. Nelmangala appears to have been transferred to the Mysore Rajas along with Thyamagondlu by the Mughals, around 1689 A.D., having acquired it from Bijapur. The place has temples of Rudra- deva, Basaveshwara, Anjaneya (two), Lakshmi Channakeshava (small), Ganesha, Kashi Vishveshwara, Veeranjaneya, Mahalingeshwara, Basavanna, etc.

The Rudradeva temple in Mysore style has two cells, one having Veerabhadra and the other having a Shivalinga, and is renovated. Outside is a small shrine of Candkieshwara and facing the temple is a four-pillared Mantappa called Vasantha Mantapa with a stucco tower. The Lakshmi-Channakeshava temple has one cell having a recently established Kannikaparameshwari. The Kashi Vishveshvara on the tankbund is built in later Vijayanagar style. Nearby is a modern Rama Mandira and its pillars have fine relief sculptures. There is an unpublished inscription dating circa 1743 A.D. On the Sondekoppa road (Two km) in a quiet place amidst rocky blocks is a small temple of Bayalu Ganapati .

There is also a choultry and the place can serve as a good picnic spot. On the Basavanahalli road is a huge Venkateshwara temple facing east built in later Vijayanagar style. Its Navaranga has pillars in later Vijayanagara style. There is an open Mukhamantappa. Outside the temple is a kalyani in-between the two rocks and it is having stone steps. On its bank is a small deserted shrine having a two handed image. Behind the Venkateshwara is a small shrine housing Ranganathaswamy in high relief, facing west. The annual Jatra and car festival are held together during April on the Chitta star for a span of three days. Across the road are separate temples of Anjaneya, Kannappa and Ganesha, all recent. The place has one mosque. Near bus stand is one Dargah.

RAMANAGARAM
Brief note on Ramanagara Taluk
Ramanagar taluk situated in Bengaluru Rural district. It covers 62930 hectares of geographical area consists of 4 Hoblies. Namely

a) Kasaba
b) Kailancha
c) Kootagal
d) Bidadi

The taluk is potential in the areas of Silk industry, General engineering Auto mobile engineering, Brick industry and artisans like carpentary, blacksmithy and masonary are engaged in particular activity. Taluk has tourist places like Janapada loka, S.R.S. Betta.

RAMANAGARAM situated in a valley surrounded by (48 km from Bangalore) rocky hillocks is sub-divisional headquarters from 1884. It became a taluk headquarters in 1928, and the place was named Ramanagaram in 1949 . It is the biggest cocoon marketing centre now. It is spread on either banks of the Arkavati and the old bridge connecting the town was built by Sir Barry Close, the Resident at the Royal Court of Mysore. Hence, the place was named as Closept, as mentioned in a Persian as well as Kannada record, erected by Diwan Purnaiah in 1800. The township was also founded around the same time for greater security of the high road, which then passed through a wild forest route.

But the present name, of Ramanagaram finds its origin from the once existed village Ramagiri below the Ramadevarabetta. The present town has an Agrahara on the left bank of the Arkavati with a temple of Arkeshwara built in later Vijayanagara style. The temple is said to have been renovated by Krishnaraja Wodeyar III. It is facing west and has a Garbhagriha, a spacious Navaranga and has an inner Prakara. The Linga was reinstalled about four years ago. The annual Jatra is held on Phalguna Shuddha Poornima, when more than 2,000 people assemble. Beside this temple, to the left, is the Prasannambadevi shrine and to the right is another small shrine of Venugopalaswamy.

Some of the relics of an old temple are seen behind inside the Prakara. Behind the Ammanavara shrine is a Kalyana Mantapa where marriages are held. Other temples of the town are Anjaneya (Agrahara), Revanasiddeshwara (Shettihalli road), Chamundeshwari (extension), Bandi Kalamma (old taluk office road), Kanikaparameshwari (M.G.road), Ramadeva ( Choultry street ), Lakshminarayana (recent), Basaveshwara (M.G.road), etc. the deity in the Ramadevaru temple is the Utsavamurti, said to have been brought from Ramadevarabetta. The place has a Raghavendra Matha in the Agrahara area. Of the Muslim monuments, the Jamia Masjid in the Mosque area is the oldest and is an attractive building.

There are, in all, eight mosques in the town. Of them, special mention may be made of Nalbandwadi Mosque, Mehaboobnagar Mosque, Motinagar Mosque, Ijur Mosque and Hajinagar Mosque. There is one Dargah with a fine building around, ascribed to Peer Hazrath phiran Shah Wali (The Peer is said to have passed away in 1792) near the Arkavati bridge, where Urus is held during the month of Jamadi-ul-Aval. On this day, more than 10,000 people assemble when Qawali programme is also held. In addition to this, there are six more Dargahs in the town viz., Bismillah Sha Wali (near railway station), Khasim Wali Shah (beside Nalbandwadi Mosque), Bade Khajas and Chote Khajas and Lautali Shah (Mosque area), Chaman Shah Wali (nearby the same area), Bahar-Ali-Shah (near Jamia Mosque) and Syed Mirah Shah Wali ( mysore road). The Muslims of the place are mainly engaged in cocoon rearing and the Silk Cocoon marketing. The place is also noted for the manufacture of highly artistic terracotta items and pottery ware, which are even marketed elsewhere in the country. Ijur or old Vayujuru, now a part of the present town, is perhaps the oldest place in the surrounding area of Ramanagaram. The village is situated at the foot of two pictureseque rocky hillocks.

Below a small rock shelter is a crevice having a Linga locally called Malleshwaragavi. Another small cave opening seen in between two small boulders is not easily accessible. Facing this hillock to the south-east in between two tall hillocks is a big tank called Ijur tank. Facing this tank, to the west, are two sloppy hillocks where a new flight of steps are being constructed leading to the flat hilltop. Here the local authorities are planning to construct one Maruti and one Ganapati temple. From here a bridge will be constructed which will connect the neighbouring rock, where a Swamy Vivekananda Ashrama is also contemplated. Viewing from this flat rock one can witness the far off hills and on the backside of it is a big tank locally called Rangaraya Kere. In the neighbouring hillock to the right is a small cavern locally called Anegavi and a pond locally called Babayyana Sone.

On the way back from these hills to right is the Gadduge ascribed to Malleshwara Swamy, a Veerashaiva saint. Facing this Gadduge are some herostones kept in a row. On a small rock facing this Gadduge is a foundation (now not seen) stone laid by Tensing Norkay in 1977 for the construction of a Mountaineering Centre. To the North east of this Gadduge is an empty old stone Mantapa below a big banayan tree. Behind this is a recent shrine of Kali and beside it is an inscriptikon slab that has fallen on the ground. This record dated 1351 A.D. announces that when Bukkanna Odeya was ruling several Prabus of Kaluvalinad, Talavadi Bommanna, Bangavaid Madana and many others granted the village Vayijuru to one official Maha Savanta Chenna Nayaka in Kulvalinad.

Nearby this record, it is said that there was one more Ganga inscription (now missing) dated about 850 A.D. which mentions the construction of a tank by one official Nagayya the son of Madavaya to commemorate the death of Nitimarga I. Hanumanthanagar (now a part of Ramanagar), situated to the west of Ijur is noted for a Ganga record located near the local Hanumantha temple. This hero-stone is dated about 850 A.D. and it announces the death of hero named Rama at Kanakuppe under Kaligile Nadu when the Ganga Ranapara was ruling the region. In front of the temple is a pillared granite Mantapa now crumbling. Archakarahali (three km from Ramanagar) situated off the Mysore road has an old Malleshwara temple.

Behind this temple over the rock is a badly damaged (unpublished) inscription mentioning `Kalikdevara...... seve' in 13th century characters. This was perhaps a Kalamukha Centre once, and the place was also called Achchigarahalli, which later became Archakarahalli. In front of the temple are four hero-stones and one has a row of soldiers holding shield and sword. The place also has one Anjaneya temple nearby. At the entrance of the village is a neatly built Madeshwara temple. Channamanahalli (4 km from Ramanagar) is situated to the east of Archkarahalli on the Kanakapura road. The place name has been mentioned as `Chandi Madiyahali' in a record dated 1319 A.D. from the same place. In another later record of 1338 A.D. the place is referred as Chenamadihalli. The place has temples dedicated to Hanumantha, Kamaleshwara, Maramma etc. Near the Anjaneya temple are two hero-stones. The place is surrounded by hills. The Kamaleshwara temple has fallen and only Garbhagriha is existing.

In front of the Hanumantha temple is a stone inscription dated 1319 A.D. by Hoysala Ballala III announcing that one official Iribhuvanamalla Sahani and others annexed Chandimadiyahalli in Vallinad and made it a Pattana and granted the same to a priest Ramalingabhatta. Another record at the same village on a stone of Viragragudi in front of the village is dated 1338 A.D. by Hoysala Narasimha II announcing that one hero Chaluvayya son of Kanchiya Nayaka was ruling this place when Chikka Ketayya Danayaka was marching from Honganur was attacked at Hode and the war finally ended in the death of Ketayya. Near the tank bund are a few more hero-stones and an inscription stone.

At Shivanahalli (2 km from Channammanahalli) is a 19th century Veerabhadra temple built b the devotees of Lakkojanahalli (neighbouring village). The annul Jatra is held during Kamana (Philaguna) Hunnime when religious rituals like fire-walking etc., are held. Jalasiddesharabetta is situated to the south-east (four km from Ramanagaram) of Ramanagaram town and it appears like a head of a Shiva Linga standing over a Panippetha. The Konanakallina Betta., called so colloquially is also visible from the Arkavati bridge in Ramanagaram town and is also called Elephant view.

To the west of this is the Jalassiddheshwara Betta having a vertical crevice, through which a person can pass. One of this has from the top to bottom several circular natural projection in the rock, identified as Lingas. It is said that water oozes out from this rock on sevral occasions forming a filment of water called Gangotri and hence the hill is called Jalasiddeshwara. Over the rock crevice are fond honey combs and it is believed that these honey bees will attack those who visit the hill without bath. People frequent this hill with profound devotion on Mondays and especially during Shivaratri. In between the crevice is a Shiva Linga installed recently. There is also an old image of Ganpati. Every year Jalasiddheshwara Aradhana is held. During droughts, people perform Kumbhabhisheka here. To the south-west of this is one more hill called the Shivanagiri which has a fort said to have been built by Kempegowda. The Jalasiddheswara hills and its surroundings are in a wonderful natural setting.

On way to Channapatna, from Ramanagaram, three km away, is Janapada Loka (Folk Cosmos) coming up as an ambitious folk museum on a ten acre plot, being sponsored by the Janapada Trust of Bangalore Noted scholar and writer H.L.Nagegowda is the brain behind the venture, and when completed, it will be a major tourist attraction. Colourful folk art performances are organized here, especially during the Dasara.


Tourism
Channapatna Toys : Channapatna, a small hamlet 46 kms. from Bangalore on the Mysore highway, excels in lacquerware, a craft practised today by over 3000 local craftspersons. Lacquerware products include brightly coloured wooden toys, door curtains, powder boxes and napkin rings, besides a range of distinctive jewellery.
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Shivagange
Shivagange is 8+Kms from Dabas Pet on the way to Tumkur from Bangalore on NH 4.
Distance from Bangalore : 50+Kms
Nearest Hospital : Shivagange, Dabas Pet.
Nearest food point : Shivagange.
Nearest Petrol Bunk : Dabas Pet.

How to get there:
Plenty of buses operate between Tumkur and Dabas pet, Shivagange. From Bangalore also quite a number of buses are available. Many private operators also run between Dabas pet and Shivagange.

Shivagange gets its name from the Holy places and temples it hosts. The spring water found here is considered to the sacred water 'Gange'.
The hillock has few temples atop and a statue of Nandi carved out of single stone is a beauty. It is about two kilometers from the bottom of the hillock where there is a village to the top of the hill. There are many temples all along the way.

The place being a huge collection of boulders and solid granite rock structures, it invites not just pilgrims but rock climbers and adventure lovers as well. Though there are no bolted routes, there is plenty of climbing.

Devanahalli Fort
The fort was built in 1501 by Mallabairegowda of Avati clan, with the consent of ‘Devappa’ a feudatory at Devanadoddi. Subsequently the name was changed to Devanahalli.The fort remained under the Avati rulers until 1747, when Mysore Dalawai, Nanjarajaiah, attacked the fort and captured it. Subsequently Devanahalli was usurped by the Marathas and reclaimed by the Mysore army under the leadership of Haider Ali.During the reign of Tipu Sultan Lord Cornwallis laid siege to the fort and took possession of it during the Mysore War of 1791.The original mud fort built by the Avati rulers was renovated and the present stone fort was built by Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan after they recaptured the place from the Marathas.

Kaveri Fishing Camp, Bhimeswari (Ramnagar)
The river Kaveri at Bhimeswari, abounds in a variety of fish including the Carnatic Carp and the Mahseer.

This place is a protected area for the fish, as the anglers are advised to release the fish, after catching them. The wild beauty of the river and the countryside, are sure to hook any tourist.
Cottages run by The Jungle Lodges and Resorts make this place a definite tourist attraction.

Manchina Bele, Magadi
This is about 36 km from Bangalore by road and about 8 km from the Big Banyan Tree. Manchinabele Dam is situated in the midst of hills and forests. Even though it is not a big dam, it is a good picnic spot.

Route: Proceed from the Big Banyan Tree via Chikkappa Circle. This reservoir and dam is about 15 km from the tree

Sawan Durga
In Kannada Durga means Fort (also Goddess Amba). Savan Durga being one of the nine such forts around Bangalore, is situated at a distance of around 50 kms west of Bangalore near Magadi.

This is also the biggest monolith in Asia.
There are several routes to the monolith at Sawana Durga, rising to the height of more than 1000ft, At the foothill there is a village by the same name and the forest around has been declared as Reserved forest and there is protected garden of the Herbs of medicinal interest

Mekedaatu in Kanakapura Taluka
It is about 90 km from Bangalore via Kanakapura. Mekedatu means goat's leap in Kannada. Mekedatu is a beautiful picnic spot where the rivers Cauvery and Arkavathi after their confluence at the Sangam, squeeze though a narrow gorge. Gushing waters, imposing landscapes, and untouched picnic spots is what Mekedatu is all about. The Cauvery river squeezing through a narrow gorge before traversing its south-bound terrain is a breathtaking sight.

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