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Begusarai District

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About the Begusarai district

Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website
http://niti.gov.in/file/507/download?token=hOokUBtI

Brief About Begusarai District
Begusarai occupies a central position in North Bihar. In 1870 it was established as a sub-divison of the Munger district. It emerged as a district in 1972. It was named after "Begu" a man of this district who used to look after "Sarai" an old and small market.Geographical features: Begusarai lies in North Bihar between latitudes 25°15' and 25° 45' north and longitudes 85°45' and 86°36" east. This town expands perpendicularly from east to west which used to be a main link road. It is bounded on the north by Samastipur, on the south by the Ganga and the Lakhisarai district, on the east by Khagaria and Munger and on the west by the Samastipur and Patna districts.Demographic feature: The 2001 census count placed the Begusarai population at 23,42,989 as on the first of March. The population has grown at an annual average rate of 2.9%. There are many stages in the demographic transition beginning with a declining mortality and continuing fertility to a stage where both mortality and fertility rates decline more or less at the same rate and keep the population stable over a period of time.

Geographical features : Begusarai lies in North Bihar between latitudes 25°15' and 25° 45' north and longitudes 85°45' and 86°36" east. This town expands perpendicularly from east to west which used to be a main link road. It is bounded on the north by Samastipur, on the south by the Ganga and the Lakhisarai district, on the east by Khagaria and Munger and on the west by the Samastipur and Patna districts.

Demographic feature:
The 2001 census count placed the Begusarai population at 23,42,989 as on the first of March. The population has grown at an annual average rate of 2.9%. There are many stages in the demographic transition beginning with a declining mortality and continuing fertility to a stage where both mortality and fertility
rates decline more or less at the same rate and keep the population stable over a
period of time.

POPULATION
Source: Census, 1991, 2001
Land : In accordance with the reports compiled by the District Agriculture Office, Begusarai, the principal characteristics of the land use pattern of the

Begusarai district for the year 2002-2003 is as follows:

Wasteland and non arable area : 2118 Hectares

Natural Water sources
Begusarai district is located in the middle Ganga plain. Main rivers are Burhi Gandak, Balan, Bainty, Baya and Chandrabhaga.

Kaver Jheel :
Kaver Jheel one of the Asia’s largest fresh water lake, also famous for Bird’s sanctuary.

Minerals : No minerals of economic importance

Irrigation : Mostly by Tubwells

Forest : This district does not comprise of any forest. In contrast to the eastern portions of the old district of Munger, this district lying south to the Ganga does not comprise of any forest of sal and other large trees. At most of the places, there are gardens of mango and litchi. Chakmuzaffar a village of Naokothi block is famous for banana. Apart from these, Babul, Neem, Guava, Lemon, Gamahar, Peepal, Bamboo, shirish are also found. Shisham is one of the most important ones of them.

Wild animals are scarcely found in this district. However, birds are seen in large numbers in various colours, particularly in the bird sanctuary of Kaver Lake. As of now 59 types of birds from abroad and 107 types of birds from home have been recognized.

Sources of Livelihood : The traditional occupation in this area has been the rearing of milch cattle. Animals are used in agricultural work even today. In urban areas rearing of cows of hybrid quality has increased. Despite domestic use of milk, a huge quantity of milk is sold to the Barauni Milk Composite Dairy Industry. This gives lucrative income and employment to the people of Begusarai.

INDUSTRY: Begusarai is nationally and internationally known for its industrial recognition. Major industrial units are: Indian Oil Refinery- Barauni, and Hindustan Fertilizer Limited -Barauni, Thermal power station- Barauni and hundreds of small industrial units in the private sector in which Hindustan Fertilizer Limited -Barauni is on the verge of closure.

This district has potential for agro- based industries because of large production of maize and oilseeds, etc, as mentioned earlier.

Infrastructure: Begusarai is well connected to other parts of Bihar and India through railways as well as roads. New Delhi - Gawahati railway line passes through Begusarai. Small aerodrome in Ulao, five kms from the district headquarters, which is used on the arrival of very important persons. Railway has a route of 119 km (B.G.) and 67 km (M.G.). Barauni Railway Junction occupies an important position. A number of important trains originate from this station for distant destinations, viz, Delhi, Guwahati, Amritsar, Varanasi, Lucknow, Mumbai, Chennai etc. Rajendra Setu on the Ganga is connected to Mokama and Howrah. There are 18 railway stations in this district.  Interior parts of the district are connected to the main roads.The National Highways 28 and 31 link this district to the other parts of the country. Its total length is 95 km. State roads have the total length of 262 km. 95% of the total villages is linked to the rural and urban road facilities.

The condition of the National Highway and other road in the district is not very good. Excessive rains coupled with poor maintenance account for the poor condition of roads. Other than National Highway, roads are maintained by the Road construction Department, Some are maintained by the Rural Engineering organization. Repairing and maintenance of roads require huge investment and proper care with a deep sense of responsibility. This a only way out.

Geography and Geology

Background
The district Begusarai, an important district in the state of Bihar lies on the northern bank of river Ganga. Earlier it was a part of the greater Munger district. Begusarai district was carved out of it as a separate district on. 2nd October 1972 (A handnote on Begusarai district census-1991). Now it is a part of the Munger commissionery. Geographically, lying between latitudes 25015’N & 25014’N and longitudes 85045’E & 85045’E, it covers an area of 1918km 2. In the north, it shares its boundaries with Samastipur district; in the east and NE it is surrounded by Khagaria district. In the southeastern part lies the Munger district. In the south is Lakhisarai and in the southwestern side, along the banks of River Ganga, it is shares its boundaries with Patna district. It is situated in a part of Middle Gangetic plains, locally known as North Bihar plains. Administratively it is divided into five subdivisions- Begusarai, Teghara, Balia Manjhaul and Bakhri and eighteen blocks namely Begusarai, Mattihani, Teghra, Samho, Bachhwara, Barauni, Bhagwanpur, Balia, Sahibpur Kamal, CheriaBariarpur, Khudabandpur, Bakhari. Mansurchak, Birpur, Dandari, Nawkothi, Garhpura, and Chhaurahi The average population density is app. 900 persons per square kms. The economy is mainly agriculture based and the major crops are wheat,

maize, chilli, sugarcane etc.

The views presented in this article belongs to the author and in no case represent the views of the organization to which he belongs or the website which hosts the article.

Two big industries mark the skyline of the district i.e. Thermal power station and Petro-Chemicals factory and Oil refinery complex at Barauni. Earlier Barauni Fertilizer was also an important industry which is now non functional. Rajendra Bridge across Ganges at Barauni forms an important link way connecting north and south Bihar, Resting spot for migratory birds in a wetland known as Kanwar tal and the Ghats of Ganga at Simaria possessing religious importance, exists as a potential tourist spots.

Climate
Being a part of Gangetic plain of Indian subcontinent, the district experiences three climatic seasons – summer from late March to mid time rainy season from mid June to October and the winter season from November to February. The month of February & March fall in the transitional season from winter to summer described as spring or “Basant”. Similarly the months of September & October falls in the transitional season from rainy season to winter season described as “Shishir”.

Physiography and Relief
North Ganga plain is a major physiographic unit of the Indian landmass. It extends from the Himalayan terrain in the north to the river Ganga in the south covering about 56980 km2. a roughly quadrilateral shape. Generally recognized as "a water-surplus area", this quadrilateral region is bounded by a northern piedmont belt where water oozes to the surface, followed by a broad belt of swampy lands, depressions and lakes, and finally an aggregation of alluvial fans as all these northern streams bend to form confluence points with the Ganga (Singh & Kumar, 1970).Hence, the surface is characterized by palaeo levees, swamps or flood basins locally called "Chaurs", relict palaeo channels aggraded in varying degrees, meander belts, ox-bow lakes and cut-of loops (Ahmad,1971). Its fluvial geomorphology is dominated from west to east by the Ghagra-Gandak Interfluves, the Gandak-Kosi Interfluves and the western Kosi Fan Belt. Some of these rivers frequently change their channels. Their channels are called by different names in different parts of their courses. According to a study in 1976 on Wetlands in Bihar, by Govt. of Bihar, natural wetlands of more than 100 ha each covered about 46828 ha (Directory of Wetlands, Govt. of Bihar)

The district of Begusarai lies in the middle part of this great plain known as mid Ganga plain. In general, it is a low-lying flat terrain (MSL45m-32m) having a southerly to southeasterly slope. This factor governs the flow of streams. Geomorphologically it is a part of the Gandak- Kosi inerfluve (please refer subheading Geomorphology given below). The southern part of the district, except those of low-lying flood plains of Ganga, appears to be an elevated landmass when compared to the adjoining districts of Khagaria and Samastipur. Hence, being a safer destination amidst the flood drained region, it supports the human activities in a better way.

The district Begusarai is divided into three flood plains namely

i. Kereha-Old Bhagmati flood plains,
ii. Burhi Gandhak Flood plain and
iii. Ganga Flood plain

The first two flood plains of the district are very low lying areaS and are prone to the flood. The floods owe their origin to the complex interplay of fluvial geomorphic elements in the upstream sections of the Kosi, Bagmati-Kareh-Budhi Gandak and related rivers. These two flood plains converge in the southeastern part of the district, which is lowland. The streams flowing in the region show a shifting tendency. In the course of their shifting, the rivers leave behind their scars of their previous channels. Thus due to shifting nature of streams and physiographic characteristic, this part is full of wetlands, backswamps and oxbow lakes. However, in the southern part, the flood plains of Ganga are least prone to flodd. Interestingly the Railway track passing through the district marks a prominent divider line for Ganga flood plain and Kereha- old Bhagmati flood plains & Burhi Gandhak flood plain. The Flood plains of Burhi Gandak and Kareha are marked by the presence of paleo levees, oxbow lakes, paleochannels, relict streams and chaurs viz Kaulachaur and Bhagwanpur chaur. These chaurs serve as excellent fertile agricultural lands duing summer and are submerged during rains. Also the areas around these chaurs face the problem of submergence for around three-four months a year. Kawar lake, a large fresh water lake which is basically a huge wetland is present as an important physiographic feature of this part.

In the Gangaflood plain, which is approaximately 50-55km long and 5-6kms wide,in the southern part of the district, except those low lying areas of “Taals and chaurs”, the typical fluvial characteristics of North Bihar rivers are not visible, which are prominent in the north of Railway track. This is the least flood prone area of the district, which gets drowned only in cases of exceptional floods in Ganga and Burhi Gandak. This relatively upland area appears to be the levee of river Ganga.

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