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Bareilly District

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About the Bareilly district

Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website
http://niti.gov.in/file/776/download?token=f822JJEg

Brief About Bareilly District
The district of Bareilly lying between Lat.28 degree 1' and Long. 78 degree 58'k and 79 degree 47'E was once the part of ancient Panchala, which was bound by the river Gomati in the east, Yamuna in the west, Chambal in the south and on the north it approaches the Himalayan foot hills. During the later Vedic period Panchala acquired considerable significance - in fact it became the matrix of Later Vedic Civilization. According to the Shatapatha Brahamana (XIII 5.4.7-8)the Brahmins who had settled in different parts of Panchala and were being patronised by its Kings were to be counted not by hundreds but by many thousands. At another place' the same text records, "speech sounds higher among the Kuru-Panchalas" - the speech denoting the rectification of Vedic texts. The scholars of Panchala were famous throughout India. It was from Panchala region that the sage Yajnavalkya was invited in the kingdom of Mithila to enlighten king Janaka on various philosophical problems. In the development of Upanisadic philosophy Prayahana Jaivali, Pratardana, Gargayayana and Uddalaka of Panchala had made significant contributions. In fact it was in this region that during the later Vedic period the Indian life and thought had assumed the form which had followed ever since. There is a story in the Kathakasmhita which reports a debate between Vaka Dalbbhya from Panchala and Dhratarastra Vaichitravirya from Kuru. This contest between the two indicates that whereas the Panchalas had soon realised the futility of sacrifices and were engaged in philosophical discussions, their neighbour Kurus were continuing their faith in rituals and sacrifices. The love for reason in the region of Panchala did not confine to philosophy only. They were ploneers in the domain of Natural Science also.

Uddalaka Aruni of Panchala who could not presumably be later than the 8th or 7th B.C. took the step from the magicomythological view of the scriptures to a naturalistic understanding of nature. He postulated the original cause of the universe the primeval being (Sat), ignoring thereby the word Brahman (identified with spirit) - which was greatly in vogue in the general intellectual climate to which he belonged. He proceeded to sketch a view of the evolution or development of everything in nature ultimately from the primeval being or Sat with a dynamism or motion inherent in it. What strikes us as most remarkable about his procedure is that practically at every step of this sketch, he drew upon empirical data or facts of direct observation, already censored by the priest class.

From archaeological point of view the district of Bareilly is very rich. The extensive remains of Ahichhatra, the Capital town of Northern Panchala have been discovered near Ramnagar Village of Aonla Tehsil in the district. It was during the first excavations at Ahichhatra (1940-44) that the painted grey ware, associated with the advent of the Aryans in Ganga Yamuna Valley, was recognised for the first time in the earliest levels of the site. Nearly five thousand coins belonging to periods earlier than that of Guptas have been yielded from Ahichhatra. It has also been one of the richest sites in India from the point of view of the total yield of terrocotas. Some of the masterpieces of Indian terrocotta art are from Ahichhatra. In fact the classification made of the terracotta human figurines from Ahichhatra on grounds of style and to some extent stratigraphy became a model for determining the stratigraphy of subsequent excavations at other sites in the Ganga Valley. On the basis of the existing material, the archaeology of the region helps us to get an idea of the cultural sequence from the beginning of the 2nd millenium BC upto 11th C.A.D. Some ancient mounds in the district have also been discovered by the Deptt. of Ancient History and culture, Rohilkhand University, at Tihar-Khera (Fatehganj West), Pachaumi, Rahtuia, Kadarganj and Sainthal.

In the 6th Cent. BC, the Panchala was among one of the sixteen mehajanapadas of India. The experiment in non-monarchical form of Government in Panchala was soon engulfed in the growing Magadhen imperialism - first under the Nandas and then under the Mauryas.

The fall of the Mauryan empire saw the emergence of numerous small and independent states in the whole Ganga Valley. It saw a remarkable revival in the fortunes of Panchala which once again came to occupy a very significant position in the history of north India. Panchala emerges at this time as one of the strongest powers in India. About 25 kings who have ruled during this period have left behind thousands of coins. During the period between the fall of the Mauryas and the rise of the Guptas, the Panchalas had two phases of power - first the pre Kushana phase i.e. from C-150 BC to AD 125 and secondly a short period of fifty years after the fall of the Kushanas, which ended in CAD 350 when Panchala was assimilated in the Gupta empire by Samudragupta.

Under the Guptas Ahichhatra was one of the provinces into which the Gupta empire was divided. The material evidence during the Gupta period at Ahichhatra does not give the impression that it was a large and prosperous centre like the preceding phase. The monuments under the Guptas are mainly religious indicating that Ahichhatra had then become mainly a religious centre.

The amalgamation of several religious and popular beliefs may be observed through out the history of Panchala in ancient India. In addition to being associated with the activities of pravahana Jaivali, Gargayayana, Uddalaka etc. responsible for giving a distinctive touch to the later vedic thought, the region was also a prominent centre of popular beliefs such as the cult of Nagas, Yaksas and Vetalas. The Jain tirthamkara Parshvanath is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichhatra. The city was also influenced by Buddha and his followers. The remains of Buddhist monastries at Ahichhatra are quite extensive. The echoes of the Bhagavates and the Saivas at Ahichhatrra can still be seen in the towering monuments of a massive temples, which is the most imposing structure of the site.

After the fall of the Guptas in the latter half of the 6th century the district of Bareilly came under the domination of the Maukharis. Under the emperor Harsha ( 606-47 AD ) the district was the part of the Ahichhatra Bhukti. During Harsha's reign the chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang also visited Ahichhatra about 635 AD.

Situated between the latitudes of 28 degree 10 minutes & 28 degree 54 minutes and longitudes of 78 degree 58 minutes & 79 degree 47 minutes, Bareilly, one time kingdom of the Rohila Emperors, has always made its presence felt since ancient time.

It has not only a glorious past but a thrilling present and promising future also. Based on the bank of river the Ramganga once this city was the mainstay of the freedom struggle. During the great revolt of 1857, when rest of the country was surmounted by Britishers Bareilly remained free from the clutches of an English forces for almost one year under the leadership of Khan Bahadur Khan. Since then people of Bareilly actively participated in every movement.

After Independence many economic as well as cultural activities started taking shape in 1961, Camphor & Allied Products Ltd. Company established its manufacturing unit in Bareilly. Now it is one of the largest Camphor making units of the world. IFFCO has also its urea making plant and marketing office here in Aonla Tehsil. Apart from these two large scale industries Bareilly is also a leading manufacturer of handicrafts items mainly based on bamboos & woods.

There are some other items viz. Cane furniture, Zari Zardozi, Surma, Patang Manjha on which Bareilly boost. Bareilly has also been the centre of cultural & educational activities in the province. From Pt. Radhey Shyam Kathawachak to Wasim Bareilvi this city has galaxy of literary. The Rohilkhand University, hub of educational activities of tarai region, attracts thousands of students

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