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Bankura District

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About the Bankura district

Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website
http://niti.gov.in/file/429/download?token=KRkLZK33

Brief About Bankura District

Location and Extent
Bankura is located in the western part of the State of West Bengal. It is a part of Bardhaman Division of the State and included in the area known as "Rarh" in Bengal. It ranks 4th according to Population and literacy rate of 2001 Census in the State. The District Bankura is bounded by latitude 22038’ N and longitude 86036’ E to 87047’ E. River Demodar flows along the northern boundary of the district. The adjacent districts are Bardhaman in the north, Purulia in th west and Paschim Medinapure in the south. The Survey of India (SOI) toposheets covering the districts are 73I, 73J, 73M and 73N.

Municipalities

Sl. No. Name No. of Wards
1 Bankura 23
2 Bishnupur 19
3 Sonamukhi 15

Agriculture
Climatic condition depending upon rainfall , temperature , humidity and altitude accompanied by various complex land form hydrology soil combination has greatly influenced the farming system of Bankura District. In Bankura District two Agro Climatic Zones, namely Undulating Red & lataritic in Sonamukhi , Joypur, Bishnupur, Ranibandh, Gangajalghati , Borjora, Saltora, Onda, Taldangra, Simlapal, Mejhia, Raipur, Sarenga, Chhatna, Indpur, Khatra, Hirbandh, Bankura-I and Bankura-II blocks and Vindhyan Alluvial Zone in Patrasayer, Indus, Kotulpur blocks, are exist. Climatically Red & Lataritic Zone is within tropical dry sub-humid having rainfall ranging from 1100 to 1400 mm and Temperature maximum 450C and minimum 100 C normally. This region primarily undulating with mounds and valleys and exhibiting different grades of laterisation process in soil formation . Soils are well drained, susceptible to soil erosion due to rapid external drainage or run off, soil reaction ranges from acidic in ridges and near neutral in valleys. Organic carbon Content, phosphate and patas are low. Agriculture in this region is mostly rain depended. Ground water is not easily and economically tappable. Prevalence of moisture stress on standing Kharif Crop in late monsoon period is very common. In Vindhyan Alluvial Zone, Soil in general are deep, texturally medium fine, mostly acidic in soil reaction, moderately well drained, ground water deeply placed, low in bases, organic matter, phosphate and medium in patas. Major part of the region harvests more than one crop utilizing canal irrigation as well as ground water.

Bankura District is located between 22.38 latitude and 86.36 to 87.38 longitude. The tropic of cancer passes almost through the middle of the District.

Net cultivable area of the District is 4.30 lakh ha. and nos. of Cultivator is 4.47 lakhs and per cultivator availability of net shown area comes to 1.02 ha. Due to continuous division and fragmentation of cultivated land Agriculture is becoming less remunerative.

About 46% of the net cropped area is under Irrigation . The gross cropped area is about 6 lakh ha. and cropping intensity is 147%.

Rice, Wheat, Oil seeds and Vegetables are the Principal Crop occupied major of the gross cropped area. Most of the Pre-Kharif and Kharif rice are grown in rainfed condition . H.Y.V. crops occupied about 9% in this district considering 100% in summer rice.

Wheat is second most important cereal crop in the district and crop is cultivated in assured / limited irrigated areas.

Among different Oil seeds, Rape & Mustared, and Sesamum are two important oil seeds grown in this district Sesamum is cultivated in 3 seasons while Rape & Mustard is cultivated during Rabi season.

It is paradoxical that though Bankura lies in sub-humid zone having total Annual Rainfall of 1300 mm to 1400 mm. Agriculture is largely dependent on the vagaries of monsoon. Drought constitutes a major hazard in the district . Intermittent gaps of in precipitation and moisture stress during the monsoon gives rise to serious set back in production during the Kharif, which is the main stay of Agriculture in the district.

The farmers of the district know Agriculture to be one of the riskiest of all enterprises. But life demands food. The farmers under the guidance of the extension personnel as friend and philosopher have established the saying “Where there is a will there is a way”. This firm determination of the farming community guided by extension workers associated the blessings of nature has raised production in the district to contribute to a sizeable quantum for feeding the population other than this district.

Land Use / Land Cover
The land use pattern differs in a pronounced manner from west to east with varying soil conditions. The eastern alluvial tract is well cultivated and most of the area is double cropped. Uncultivable wastelands are not usually found in this part, except in the slopes and banks of drainage channels, which are not suitable for cultivation due to sheet and gully erosion. Baid type of land occurs at a lower level than the gullied waste lands and covered with sandy loam soil on which paddy is grown. Kanali lands are at still lower level lands in the alluvial tract on which paddy is grown extensively with moderate to good yields. Sol or Bahal type of lands with loamy or clay soils and with ample surface moisture is best for cultivation of paddy and summer vegetables. Lands with laterite or lateritic soils are generally covered by Sal forest except for cultivated patches within them.

Climate
The seasons in Bankura are generally distributed as ‘hot summer’ (April-May), ‘monsoon’ (June-September) and ‘Cold season’ (November-February). The humidity is usually medium to high throughout the year and the rainfall, though not heavy, is usually well distributed. The average annual rainfall to the district is around 1300 mm. The rainy months are generally July and August.

Tourism
The Local attraction for tourists is marvelous for various sights under the district :-

Northern Zone : Durgapur Barrage, Gandoa Dam & Koropahar.
South Zone : Mukutmonipur, Jhilimili, Sutan, and ECO Park at Taldangra, Talberia, Terracota Project at Panchmura etc.
Western Zone : Susunia Hill & Beharinath Hill.
Eastern Zone : Temples of Bishnupur, Joyrambati.

Special Features of tourist plots

Susunia
Susunia hill is quite popular as treakking spot both inside & out side of Bankura district. It is also an important tourist spot for the people who visit the place to see "Dhara" (Natural Spring) & Silialipi

Bishnupur
Bishnupur is famous for temples with terracotta art and large water area and there are approximately 16 temples in the Bishnupur. Most of the temples made in the decade of Mallaraja namely Jore Banglow, Rsmanch, Madanmohan Mandir, Shyam Roy Mandir (Panchcura) & Chhinnmasta Mandir etc.Bishnupur is famous for it own musical gharana (Classical Music) Dalmadal Kaman

Biharinath
Biharinath Hill is on the north of Saltora Block, tallest in the district (448 metre) stands guard on the north-western edge, a famous place of tourism and at the foot of the hill a small tank mesuring 0.50 ha. can be accommodated with a anglins facilities for recreation of the touring people near by a temple

Joyrambati
Joyrambati the Birth place of Sree Sree Maa Sarada Devi is a holy visiting place. The famous temple of Singha Bahani Devi is an special attraction. Mayerepukur, in font of the residential house of Ma-Sarada is also a visible sight

Mukutmonipur
Mukutmonipur- Jhilimili circuit has became the most attractive tourist site in Bankura District The second biggest earther Dam of India, Mukutmonipur is 55Km away from Bankura District Head Quarter and situated in the confluence of river Kangsabati and Kumari. Green forest surround the vast bluish tract of water, Hillocks are essentially a dream come here. The place is very much famous for its superb natural beauty. The undulating terrain along the southern edge of the Kangsabati Water Reservoir spreads as a three-dimensional necklace of green and Terracotta colour. The stand-till water of the reservoir look like a large blue tinted glass mirror reflecting the vast expanse of sky over it. The vastness of the lake stretches as far your eye can reach. The view of the sunset with the lake on the four ground is breath taking . You must also experience the moonlit night around the reservoir . The surface of the static water turns into a shiny silvery plate gifted by God.

Jhilimili
Jhilimili is situated 70 Km away from Bankura Town of us beauty of an undisturbed dense natural forest. A travel from Ranibund to Jhilimili offers a wonderful exposure to spectacular forest of varying heights on both sides on the route, and finally reaching Jhilimili mounted on the top of a hillock. The sparkle of micaceous soil adds to the beauty of the environment.

FORESTRY / WASTELAND

Introduction
Forest land of 148177 ha. constitute 21.5% of total geographical area of the district, which is below national average of 33% forest coverage. Latest land use patterns indicate that culturable wasteland stood at 11703 ha. fallow land, other than current fallow at 11101 ha., Current fallow at 16480 ha. and 36692 ha. of Barren and uncultivable land. This land may be made suitable for taking up forestry/ waste land development.

From the geographical , socioeconomic & environmental consideration, the district offers lot of scope for development of this activity . In view of Govt. supports for development of this sector, long term potential for development through credit may be estimated at 2500 hect. for next 5 years with annual phasing of 500 ha.

Infrastructure
The district is covered under the programmes of National Waste Land Development Board. IWDP is being implementation in 7 blocks viz. Indpur, Chhatna, Saltora, Khatra, Hirbundh, G.Ghati and Ranibandh.

State Govt. has implemented social forestry project in the district covering roadside, riverside, railway embankment plantation etc. West Bengal forest development corporation, pulpwood development corporation are also working for forest and wasteland development in the district during the past years. Govt. has stressed for biotic plantation distribution of seeding etc. in the district.

Forest of the district is divided into three divisions. On an average of 20% of forests are barren of degraded . Under State and Central sponsored programmes, rejuvenation and or re-plantation are taken to an average of 1500-1600 ha. per year. In coming five years 2000 ha. is also expected to be developed with non-timber forest. However bank credit may flow to the privately owned land only and no private land is categorized as forest land.

PLANTATION / HORTICULTURE
The agro climatic condition of the district is suitable for plantation / horticulture crops such as Mango, Guava, Cashewnut, Jackfruit, Banana, Papaya, Lime and others. Cultivation of most fruit crops are taken up as backyard plantation rather than commercial venture. There is also scope for development of floriculture, medicinal and aromatic plants in the district. Total area under horticulture crops in the district is around 4775 ha.

The integrated wasteland development programmes is under implementation in the district with effect from 1993-94 to utilize wasteland and generate employment opportunities in rural area. It is a Govt. assisted programme, which aims at undertaking plantation activities of tasser host plantation (Arjun), horticultural development , energy plantation (non edible oil), medicinal and Silivipasture etc. in the district. Execution of plantation activities etc. done through Panchayat bodies. A commercial activity is need of the hour. Due importance is being attached by the SG. An agreement has been reached with a Israeli partner to develop planting materials of suitable species of PH corps. Arrangements are also being made to produce high quality planning materials in another farm at Joyrambati.

Infrastructure required / available / gap
There are seven seed farm, one model farm, one horticulture research center (Taldangra) and 250 seed dealers in the district. Fruit crops development nurseries at Bankura , Taldangra, Kotulpur and Sonamukhi have been taking initiatives to popularize the activity . However it is observed that difficulties are there in getting timely supply of planting materials and other non credit inputs like technical advices for commercial exploitation. The marketing arrangement in the district also very poor. The farmers may be made aware of the post harvesting technology for fetching remunerative prices. Transport system in the district need further improvement, non availability cold chain adds to its misery. There is no fruit processing industries in the district which could give encouragement to undertake the activity also on marginal land .

NABARD is also collaboration with SG. Trying to promote plantation crop of dryland variety to diversify agriculture activity in the district

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