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Yanam District

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About the Yanam district
Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website
http://niti.gov.in/file/297/download?token=h7hl3Wb7

Brief About Yanam District

A HISTORICAL  PERSPECTIVE OF YANAM

  • It is mentioned in the book, the botonic garden of Yanam by Colonel A. Bigot that at first, the French establishment a warehouse here in 1723 A.D. Since the business became slack, it was given up in 1727 A.D. and was re-occupied in 1742 A.D. A `Fireman' was issued by the Mughal emperar, confirming all the concessions made to the French by Salabathjung, the Subadar of Deccan.
  •  These concessions were in the shape of the donations and the name `Inam' was changed into Yanam(Yanaon) by the French in the course of time. People say that this region was presented to Mr. Bussy, the French General by a Vijayanagara King as a token of gratitude for the help rendered by Mr. Bussy in the fight against the rulers of Bobbili.  We can se his street named after `Bussy' here.  It s beleived that Bussy had stayed in a certain building in this street.
  • In the west of Yanam, we can find `Neelikundilu'(Indiog wells) people say that the Dutch constructed a front here in which they used to keep their currency, minted in the mint at Neelapalli, a near by village.

  • Yanam is situated on the East Coast, in the district of East Godavary, Andhra Pradesh.  It  was occupied by the French in 1723. 
    It ranks the third in the antiquity of the Five former French settlements
    1 Chandernagar 1673
    2. Pondicherry 1674
    3. Yanam 1723
    4. Mahe 1725 and
    Karaikal 1739. 
    Yanam was under the French rule for more than two centuries.  It was liberated in 1954. 
    It is now one of the component parts of the Pondicherry State.
  • It is a small area of 8 square miles in exent, situated on the left bank of the eastern branch of the Godavary River in Andhra Pradesh.  Its location is 16o43o northern longitude and 80o5 eastern longitude.  It is built on a place where the river Coringa and the Godavary meet and is bounded on the East and the South by these rivers.  The Godavary discharges itself into the sea 9 miles south of Yanam town.  Thr coringa river divides the town into two parts.

  • There are 8 villages under the Municipal jurisdiction of Yanam namely Kanakalapeta, Jambavanpeta, Agraharam, Mettakur, Kursampeta, farampeta Darialtippa and Guerempeta.  The cobbler community lives in Jambavanpeta.  The fishermen Community lives mainly in Agraharam, Mettakur, Kuraampeta and Guerempeta.  Wate for irrigation comes from Andhra Pradesh through an age-old small canal called "French Kalva".  The soil is fertile for cultivation but the irrigation facilities are scanty .  The main crop is paddy besied the seasonal crops of pulses, chillies and ground nuts.
  • This tiny town's history goes back to 1723 when the Compagnie des Indes of France established here a trading post of theirs.  It was vacated after four years because their commercial operations had not produced the desired results.   It was seized again in 1731 during the time of Duplex. Nabab Roustoumkhan granted a Paravana dated 1735 for French Commerce in Yanam.
  • It was re-established completely in 1742 and administered by DE Choisis who died here on 27th October 1747.  He was succeeded by Sinfray.  The annual rent was waived off by a document in 1743 for  Yanam.  Mir Mohamed Alikhan granted all the rights on the lands situated before the quarters at Yanam in 1747.  Unfortunately necessary details are not available for this period i.e. from 1723 to 1750.
  •  The sovereignity of this territory was confirmed in 1750 to the French by Musaffar Yung, Nizam of  Hyderabad.
  •  In 1753, a Paravana of Salbat Singh, Subedar of Deccan conceded to Bussy the paragaanas of Chicacole, Ellore, Rajahmundry etc. with an annual revenue RS.2,00,000 for the maintenance of the French troops in the suba in recognition of the help of these circars amounted upto 10 lakhs of Ruppes per year.    Bussy helped Salbat Singh to be the Subedar of Deccan.  The agreement made between the French and Salbat Singh in Aurangabad bears the signature of Said Loukshur, Minister of  Salabat Singh, Yanam acquired considerable improtance during the occupation of the Northern Circors by the French.
  • There is again a dearth of information regarding this place from 1753 to 1765.  It was under the control of the English during this period.
  •  A document dated 15th May, 1765 showed that the villages of Yanam and Kapuapalem with other lands were handed over by Jean white hill and George Dolben, the English men deputed by Jean Pybus, the head of the English settlement in Musulipatnam  to Yoan Yacques Panon, French Commissioner deputed by Jean Law de Lauriston for taking them over.  This document mentions that France entered into possession of Yanam and its dependent territories with exemption from all export and improt duties.
  • Soon after taking possession of this settlement, Panon obtained a paravana from the ruler of Rajahmundry  granting the French full liberty of trade at Yanam and another one from the Nabab Nizam Ali calling upon the Samindars of the Circar Mustafanagar not to hinder the comnerce of the French.
  •  Yanam was situated in the provice of Peddapur in the  jurisdiction of Timma Raja.  The French had a modest building here situated a league from the sea, on the river Coringa into which small vessels could enter.  The documents of 1765 throw light on a dispute of a wekkly market or fair in Yanam.  A weekly market used to be held here on every Tuesday.  People used to come to it for purchasing all their essential commodities once for a week.
  •  Neelapalli, a neighbouring vilage of Yanam was under the British at that time. It is nearly 3 KM. Away from Yanam. The people in this village also used to hold a fair on Tuesday. Thus there was a clash of interests between Yanam and Neelapalli.
  •  After prolonged correspondence with the English authorities at Madras, the French authorities in Yanam succeded in changing the fair of Neelapalli to another day of the week, Saturday. In this way, Yanam triumphed over its neighbouring village Neelapalli.
  •  This is again lack of information because of its subsequent English Occupation.
  •  Yanam was restored again to the French in 1785. Mallhendre took possession of it and he was succeeded by Bluter. It was recommended to them to favour the business of the French Company and to protect the interest of some specified merchants.
  •  After Bluter, Sonnerat became the chief in 1790 in Yanam. He was a scholar. He had a profound interest in Natural Sciences. He wrote a book "VOYAGE AUX INDES ORIENTALES ET En CHINE." In 3 volumes. He appreciated very much the sonority and the music of the telugu language. He administered Yanam during the time of the French Revolution.
  • The French revolution had its effects in different ways in all the former french settlements.  Let us study now there action of Yanam during this period . The french trade at Yanam was considerable at that time.  Lew stated in his "Memoire of 1767".  It is from Yanam that we get out best "guiness" (fine cloth).  It is possible to have a commerce  here worth more than a million lives per year under circumstances more favourable than thoses in which we are placed now, but always by giving advances much earlir, which we have never been in a position to do.
  • From this place we also procured  teak-wood, oils rice and other grains both for men as well as for animals".  A port from commercce,  Yanam  enjoyed another kind of importance  "the advantages which may be derived in a time of war from the alliances that we the French may conclude with sesveral Rajas who sooner or later cannot fail to be dissatisfied with the English".  Although  the English gained an effective control over the circars, Yanam  enabled the French to enter into ssecret relations with the local chiseftains.  Yanam had some commercial importance.
  • It was a centre for the manufacture of salt and this salt consituted thje major part of the quantity imported by the French into Bengal,region.  It was also an important csentre of cotton goods and supplied a large part of the return cargo of the french ships visiting India.  A few French citizens in Yanam were fully occupied  by these  two kinds of profitble busiuness and they had no interest in political and  administrative matters which were lesft senterely to the chief or commandant.  Indian residents wantseds nothing better than to be lesft in peace to carry on their trading activities.
  •  Mr.Sommerat,Chief of Yanam, was involvsed in this business along with other traders.  His commercial involvement brought sserious consequences to his administrative post. The petitions were made against him  in this connection, to the De Fresns  the them French Governor in Pondsicherry.  On 5.6.1790 a French man Mr. Demars complined against him for the Ist time.
  • He had 40 vessels loaded with salt for Bengal representing the fortune of  10 individuals, he alleged that Mr.Sommerat had been troubling him in carying  out his business and requested the Governor and the Ist Committee to rsecall him.  By that time, Pondsicherry under the influence of the French Revolution, had alreadly formed the Ist  representative committee.  But no action was taken in favour of Demars either by the Governer or by this Ist committee.  Naturally, the French citizens in Yanam were desinterested in the affairs of Pondicherry owing to his failure.

GENERAL

Yanam is situated on the east coast of the Indian Peninsula between 16 degree 42’ Northern latitude, and between 82 degree 11’ and 82 degree 19’ Eastern longitude bounded on all sides by the East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh State.  The town of Yanam lies on the spot where the River Coringa (Atreya) branches off from Gauthami into two parts.  The entire region, consisting of Yanam town and six villages is treated as a Municipality for purposes of local administration.  The region which covers an area of 20.0 sq.m. has a population of 31,362 according to the 2001 census.  The region is bounded on the east and south by river Gowthami Godavari which discharges itself into Bay of Bengal after flowing almost 14 kms. towards south east from Yanam.

There is no railway line in Yanam region.The nearest Railway Station is at Kakinada (Headquarters of East Godavari District) which is 26 kms. away on the east.It is an important trade center and port town and there is a District road connecting Yanam.It is also linked by another road on the west of Ramachandrapuram and Rajahmundry. A new bridge across river Gauthami was constructed and made use of public connecting Yanam with Yedurlanka, forming a part of NH 214. CLIMATE AND RAINFALL



It experiences a climate which is characterized by high humidity over 70 per cent in the mornings Andover 60 per cent in the evenings throughout the year, an oppressive summer season and a good rainfall. It enjoys the benefit of both the South - west and North - east Monsoon. During a year on an average, the normal rainfall is 1226 mm. TEMPERATURE

From February, temperature start rising rapidly till May which is the hottest month with the mean maximum around 37 C and mean minimum around 28 Humidity being high, the heat is very trying.The maximum temperature on some days in May or early June before the onset of the south-west monsoon may even touch 47 C. The sea breeze, however afford some relief in afternoons.ify"Similarly pre-monsoon thunder-showers may also bring welcome relief on some days.  With the onset of the monsoon in June the temperature falls rapidly and remains almost steady till September.  In this season mean maximum temperature is around

32C and night temperature fall rapidly till December or January when day temperature is around 27 C and the night temperature around 19 C.Some times the minimum temperature may reach as low as about 14 C.December and January are the coolest months.

HUMIDITY

The air is generally humid throughout the year with relative humidity – over 70 per cent in the mornings and over 60 per cent in the evenings during all the months.

CLOUDINESS

The sky is generally heavily clouded to overcastduring the south - west monsoon months. There is moderate cloudiness in the post monsoon months.During the rest of the year, the sky will clear or lightly clouded.

SURFACE WINDS

In the summer season winds blow from directions between south - east to south-west. During the monsoon season, they blow mainly from south - west to west.During October to February, winds are usually from north-east in the mornings, veering towards south-east in the afternoons.  Winds are generally light to moderate during the whole year.

SPECIAL WEATHER PHENOMENA

The storms and depression which form in the Bay of Bengal in the pre-monsoon month of May, and during September to November, cross the east coast, and affect the region and the neighbourhood, causing thunder-storms, heavy rain, tidal waves and strong winds.Occasional thunder - storms associated mainly with the onset of the south - west monsoon occur in April, May and June.
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