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Official Website : http://southgarohills.gov.in

Headquarters : Baghmara
State : Meghalaya

Area in Sq Km (Census 2011)
Total : 1887
Rural : 1878.2
Urban : 8.8

Population (Census 2011)
Population : 142334
Rural : 129203
Urban : 13131
Male : 73170
Female : 69164
Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 males) : 945
Density (Total, Persons per sq km) : 75

Helplines :
Police Control Room : 100
Women Helpline : 1091
Fire and Rescue : 101
Ambulance Help Line : 102
Child Help Line : 1098
Saral Help Line : 18002000023

Population (Census 2010) : The current world population is 7.6 billion (As of 1st July 2018)

Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website

Brief About South Garo Hills District
The South Garo Hills district of Meghalaya covers an area of 1850 sq. Kms. The district is located in the southern part of the state and bounded by West Garo Hills district in the west, East Garo Hills in the north, West Khasi Hills in the east and Bangladesh in the South. It has come up as a separate district on 18th of June 1992 before which it was a part of West Garo Hills district. The district headquarter is Baghmara.

The almost complete absence of written records prior to the coming of the British leaves the past history of the Garos very far from certain. For the past, we have to depend entirely on their legends and oral traditions, their folklore and folksongs, and other circumstantial evidences .

Early Migrations and Settlements

We cannot be certain length of time the Garos have been in the hills that bear their name .

"According to their own traditions, the Garos came originally from Tibet and settled in Cooch Bihar. From where, they were driven to the neighbourhood of Jogighapha, where they remained 400 years but were again compelled to fly towards the south by the king of that country and his ally the ruler of Cooch Bihar. Their next wanderigs were to Gauhati where they were enslaved by the Assamese, but released by a Khasi prince who settled them in the neighbourhood of Boko. The place was, however, infested with tigers and the Garos then moved into the hills". (as recorded in Gazetteer of Bengal and North-East India by B.C. Allen, W.E.A.. gait, C.H.G. Allen & H.P. Howard). Another tradition ascribing some support to this theory, maintains that the Garos are descended from their forefathers in Asong Tibetgori. The Garos in the Kamrup plain, recount a tradition that their forefathers came eastward from the Himalayas and reached Gondulghat where they made a brief halt, and on leaving that place, traversed to Sadiya, from where they trekked on into the north bank of Brahmaputra. After a long westward trail, they reached Amingaon. There in the north bank their life was not secure, they crossed the Bahmaputra river and came to occupy Kamakhya. They occupied it for some generations until the Koches came to invade the Garo Kingdom. From Gauhati, wave after wave of westward migration poured to the Garo outer hills, and later on penetrated the interior hills of their present abode. If critically examined, the ancient history of Garos would seem to have been a period marked by persistent and tenacious internal warfare and many blood-feuds seem to have occurred between families or villages and between neighbouring Chiefs or Nokmas.

  Mediaeval Period  

During the Mediaeval period and the Mughal era, the more important estates bordering the Garo Hills were Karaibari, Kalimalupara, Mechpara and Habraghat in Rongpur district, Susang and Sherput in Mymensing district of Bengal and Bijini in the Eastern Duars.Early records describe the Garos as being in a state of intermittent conflict with Zamindars of these large estates. 

With the passage of time in the medieval period, while the Garos in the hills were still divided into a number of petty Nokmaships, the plain tracts along the fringes at the foot of the hills came to be included in the many Zamindari Estates, which eventually developed into fewer but larger complexes.

Modern Period 

The contact between the British and the Garos started towards the close of the 18th Century after the British East India Company had secured the Diwani of Bengal from the Mughal Emperor. Consequently, all the estates bordering upon Garo Hills, which for all practical purposes had been semi-independent were brought under the control of the British. Though political control had passed from the Mughals to the British, the latter, like Mughals, had no desire to control the Estates or their tributaries directly. The Zamindars were not disturbed in the internal management of their estates. In fact, they were entrusted, as they had been by the Mughals, with the responsibility of keeping the hill Garos in check with help of their retainers. Thus in the beginning, the intermittent conflict between the Zamindars and the Garos went on unabated until the situation deteriorated to the extent that the British were forced to take notice. This development led ultimately to the annexation of the Garo Hills in 1873. Captain Williamson was the first Deputy Commissioner of the unified district. The district was bifurcated into two districts viz. East Garo Hills and West Garo Hills districts in October 1979.The West Garo Hills district was further divided into two administrative districts of West and South Garo Hills on June 1992. The district headquarters of South Garo Hills is Baghmara.

District  Profile 

South  Garo Hills is the latest  district of Meghalaya located in the Southern part of the State.The Garo Hills district was divided into two districts, viz. the West Garo Hills district and the East Garo Hills district on October 1976. 

 The erstwhile West Garo Hills district was further divided into two administrative districts of West and South Garo Hills on June 1992. The district headquarters of South  Garo Hills is Baghmara.    

Area Location & Population

The South  Garo Hills district lies on the Southern part of the state of Meghalaya bounded  by West Garo Hills district in the west, East Garo Hills in the north, West Khasi Hills in the east and Bangladesh in the South.

Total Geographical area 1850 Sq.Km
Total Population(1991)


Sub-Divisions (excluding District Hq.)


Development Blocks(1991) 3
Towns(1998) 1
Police Station(1997-98)  1
Police Outposts(1997-98) 2

The population is pre-dominantly inhabited by the Garos, a tribe with a matrilineal society belonging to the Bodo family of the Tibeto-Burman race tribes. Other indigenous inhabitants are the Hajongs, Rabhas, Koches, Rajbansis, Meches, Kacharis and Dalus.. 


Chitmang Peak : The height of this peak is 1,029 metres. This peak is locally called Waimong. Wai  means god and mong means very big. So this peak  is the Great God. It has another name Kaylas. 

The simsang river runs through the foothills of this peak. The peak is very prominent, it can be seen from a far. Its peak resembles the back of the bull. The Garos believe that the spirits of the dead pass by this peak.

Balpakram Hills :

The hills is adjacent to the Chitmang Peak.  Its height is 863 metres. Garos love to talk about this hill which is connected with the life of the spirits and the mysterious stories m.

River System

Someswari : 

Someswari  is the largest  river in the whole district. The river is locally known as Simsang. 

It starts from Nokrek mountains and runs towards the east, passing through Rongrenggre, Williamnagar the headquarters of East Garo Hills district, Nongalbibra, Siju, Rewak and lastly Baghmara the headquarters of South Garo Hills district. 

The upper course of this river is not navigable due to the high number of cataracts and numerous huge stones. However the lower course has many deep pools and falls. They are Mirik, Matma, Kan’chru Suk, Jamiseng, Warisik, Bobra, Goka etc. The chief tributaries are Chibok, Rongdik, Rompa and Ringdi rivers.


The climate of the district is largely controlled by South–West monsoon and seasonal winds. The South Garo Hills district being relatively lower in altitude to the rest of Meghalaya, experiences a fairly high temperature for most part of the year. Winter is  practically dry. The district have mostly dense tropical mixed forest                          


Baghmara, the headquarters of the district, is connected by road with nearest town Tura as well as with the state capital Shillong. The road distance between Baghmara to Tura is 122 kms. 

The road distance between Baghmara to the state capital Shillong is 445 kms. Buses and taxis by private transport services run regularly connecting Baghmara with the nearest town of Tura. The nearest railhead is at Gauhati, the capital of Assam which is about 342 kms from Baghmara.