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Sirsa District

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About the Sirsa district
Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website
http://niti.gov.in/file/594/download?token=mvGx1deh

Brief About Sirsa District
Origin of the name of the District
The name of the district is derived from its headquarters Sirsa. It is said to be one of the oldest places of North India and its ancient name was Sairishaka, which finds mention in Mahabharata, Panini's Ashatadhayayi and Divyavadan. In Mahabharata, Sairishaka is described as being taken by Nakula in his conquest of the western quarter. It must have been a flourishing city in the 5th century B.C. as it has been mentioned by Panini.

There are a number of legends about the origin of the name of the town. As mentioned earlier, its ancient name was Sairishaka and from that it seems to have been corrupted to Sirsa. According to local tradition, an unknown king named Saras founded the town in 7th century A.D. and built a fort. The material remains of an ancient fort can still be seen in the South-East of the present town. It is about 5 kilometers in circuit. According to another tradition, the name has its origin from the sacred river Sarasvati which one flowed near it. During medieval period, the town was known as Sarsuti. It has been mentioned as Sarsuti by a number of medieval historians. The derivation of name Sirsa, is also attributed to the abundance of siris trees[Albizia lebbock (Benth)] in the neighborhood of Sirsa which seems quite plausible for it finds some corroboration also in Panini and his commentator. In ancient period, Sirsa was also known as Sirsapattan.

History of the District as an Administrative Unit

Sirsa seems to be in the administrative division of Hisar Feroza during Firuz Shah's reign. In the time of Akbar, Sirsa was one of the dasturs of Hisar Feroza Sarkar and much of its area lying in the present Sirsa district was covered by Mahals of Fatehabad, Bhattu, Bhangiwal (Darba), Sirsa, Bhatner (or Hanumangarh, Rajasthan) and Paniyana (Rajasthan). With the decline of the Mughal Empire, the track comprising Sirsa district came under the control of Marathas. The whole of Delhi Territory of which the tract formed part was ceded by the Marathas to the British in 1810. Sirsa was part of the outlying district of Delhi territory under the charge of an Assistant to the Resident. In 1819, the Delhi territory was divided into three districts - the Central which included Delhi, The Southern including Rewari, and the North-Western including Panipat, Hansi, Hisar, Sirsa and Rohta. In 1820, the latter was again sub-divided into Northern and Western and Sirsa alongwith Hansi, Hisar and Bhiwani formed Western district (Haryana district and later known Hisar district).

In 1837, Sirsa and Rania parganas were taken out of Haryana district and alongwith Guda and Malaut parganas were formed into a separate district called Bhattiana. The pargana of Darba from Hisar district and the small pargana of Rori confiscated from erstwhile princely state of Nabha were transferred to Bhattiana in 1838 and 1847 respectively. In 1844, Wattu pargana running upto Satluj was added in the Bhattiana district. The whole of the Delhi territory alongwith district of Bhattiana and Hisar was transferred to Punjab in 1858 and the dustrict of Bhattiana was renamed as Sirsa.

In 1861, 42 villages of Tibi tract of Rania pargana were transferred to the then state of Bikaner.

The Sirsa district which comprised three tahsils of Sirsa, Dabwali and Fazilka was abolished in 1884 and Sirsa tahsil (consisting of 199 Villages) and 126 villages of Dabwali tahsil formed one tahsil and the same was merged in the Hisar district and the rest of the portion was transferred to the Firozpur district (Punjab). There was no change till the Independence of the country except that a village was transferred from Sirsa tahsil to the then state of Bikaner in 1906.

The entire area of the district was included in the new state of Haryana on November 1, 1966. In 1968, Sirsa tahsil was bifurcated into Sirsa and Dabwali tahsils. In 1974, three villages of Dabwali tahsil were transferred to Sirsa tahsil. On September 1, 1975, Sirsa and Dabwali tahsils were constituted into a separate Sirsa district with headquarters at Sirsa.

PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION


Distance From Major Cities :

Delhi : 255 Km
Chandigarh : 280 Km 

Latitude and Longitude :

The district lies between 29 14 and 30 0 north latitude and 74 29 and 75 18 east longitudes, forming the extreme west corner of Haryana. It is bounded by the districts of Faridkot and Bathinda of Punjab in the north and north east, Ganga Nagar district of Rajasthan in the west and south and Hisar district in the east. Thus it touches the interstate boundaries on three sides and is connected with its own state only in the eastern side.

Topography :

The terrain of Sirsa district may be broadly classified from north to south into three major types i.e. Haryana Plain, alluvial bed of Ghaggar or Nali and Sand dune tract. The characteristics of the three are briefly described below :

 Haryana Plain - The Haryana Plain is a vast surface of flat to rolling terrain and extends southward to the northern boundary of the alluvial bed of the Ghaggar. It covers over 65 percent of the area of the District. The elevation of the surface from east to west varies from 190 to 210 meters above the mean sea level. The most diagnostic feature of the Haryana Plain is the presence of palaeo channels which set the occurrence of sand dunes in this terrain unit apart from those in the dune tract. The plain is traversed by numerous dune complexes and shifting sands.

 Alluvial bed of Ghaggar - Nali : A clayey surface of almost flat, featureless plain bordered in the north and west by the Haryana Plain and in the south along the sound dune tract, is a manifestation of the misfit nature of the present day Ghaggar. Waterlogging is a serious problem in many parts of this flat surface of impervious clay of great thickness. At places, swamps support a high density of tall grass.

 Sand dune tract - Third tract covers the southern most part of the district. The area is northward extension of the sand dunes of Hisar District and GangaNagar District of Rajasthan. The dunes are locally called tibbas. Tibbas around Ellenabad are 9 Meters high; Naugaza Tibba at the border of Rajasthan is 17 Meters high; Tikonta tibba is some 14 Meters high and one south of Shahpuria is 13 Meters high. All tibbas are broad based transverse ridges, some more than 3 Kilometers long without a break. Linear to complex ridges, short to fairly long but narrow at the crests, and generally 2 to 5 Meters high are also present throughout the sandy stretch of the land.

CLIMATE :
 The climate of this district is characterised by its dryness and extremes of temperature and scanty rainfall. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from November to March is followed by the Summer season which lasts upto the end of June. The period from July to about the middle of September and from the middle of September to October constitute the south west monsoon and post-monsoon seasons respectively.

Rainfall : Records of rainfall in the district are available for Sirsa only for sufficiently long periods. The average annual rainfall in the district is 32-53 mm. The rainfall in the district increases generally from west to east. About 72 percent of the annual normal rainfall in the district is received during the short south east monsoon period, July to September, July and August being the rainiest months. There is significant amount of rainfall in the month of June, mostly in the form of thunder showers. In the rest of the year, there is a very little rainfall. During the period 1901 to 1975, the highest annual rainfall as recorded was 327 percent of the normal in 1917. The lowest annual rainfall amounting to only 34 percent of the normal was recorded in 1920.

On an average there are 20 rainy days (i.e. days with rainfall of 2.5 mm or more) in a year in the district. The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours recorded in the district was 165.4 mm on September 22, 1917.

Temperature - There is no meteorological observatory in the district, so the mean meteorological conditions prevailing at GangaNagar and Hisar may be taken as representative of those prevailing in the district as general. There is a rapid increase of temperature after February. The mean daily maximum temperature during May and June which is the hottest period varies from 41.5 ºC to 46.7 ºC. On individual days the maximum temperature during the summer season may rise upto about 49 ºC. With the advance of the Monsoon into the district, by about the end of June, there is appreciably drop in the day temperature and the weather becomes cooler during the day time, but the nights are warmer than those during the summer season. With the added moisture in the monsoon air, the nights are often uncomfortable. The decrease in temperature is rapid after October and drop in temperature after nightfall is particularly trying. January is generally the coldest month with the mean daily maximum at 21.1 ºC and the mean daily minimum at 5.1 ºC.

Humidity - Relative humidity in the mornings is generally high during the monsoon season and during the period December to February, it is usually 70 percent or more. Humidity is comparatively less during the rest of the year, the driest part being the summer season with the relative humidity being about 30 percent in the afternoons.

Cloudiness - During the monsoon season, the sky is mostly moderately to heavily clouded. In the rest f the year, the sky is generally clear or lightly clouded. Cloudy sky prevails for brief spell of a day or two in association with passing western disturbances in the cold season.

Winds - Winds are generally light in the district with some strengthening in force during the late summer and monsoon seasons. During the south-west monsoon season while winds from south-west or west are more common, easterlies and south-easterlies also blow on some days. In the post monsoon and winter season while south-westerly or westerly winds are ore common in the mornings, northlies and north-westerlies are predominant in the afternoons. In summer, winds are more common from the west or south-west in the mornings. In the afternoons they are mostly from directions between west and north-west.

Special Weather Phenomena - Some of the depressions which originate in the Bay of Bengal in the south-west monsoon season, and which move across the central parts of the country reach the district during the last stages of activity and cause wide spread rain before dissipating. An occasional post-monsoon storm or depression also affects the district. Thunder Storms occur throughout the year but the highest incidence is during the monsoon season. Dust storms occur often during the hot season. Occasional fogs affect the district in the cold season.

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