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Rudraprayag District

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About the Rudraprayag district

Click on the following link to download district statistics as per NITI Ayog website
http://niti.gov.in/file/363/download?token=DKKWPZb3

Brief About Rudraprayag District
Rudraprayag District was established on 16th September1997. The district was carved out from the following areas of three adjoining districts.

1- Whole of Augustmuni & Ukhimath block and part of Pokhri & Karnprayag block from Chamoli District.

2-  Part of Jakholi and Kirtinagar block from Tehri District.

3-  Part of Khirsu block from Pauri District.

Internationally Known Shri Kedarnath Temple is at North, Madmaheshwar at east, Nagrasu at southern east and Shrinagar at extreme south. The holy Mandakini originated from Kedarnath is the main river of the district.

Historical Back Ground

Today’s Garhwal was known as kedar-khand in the past. In puranas kedar-khand was said to be abode of God. It seems from the facts vedas puranas, Ramayna and Mahabharat  that these Hindu scriptures   are scripted   in kedar-khand . It is believed that God Ganesha first script of vedas in Vayas gufa situated in the last village Mana only four km.from Badrinath.

According to Rigveda(1017-19)  after Inundation (Jalprlya)  Sapt-Rishis saved their  lives in the same village Mana. Besides there the roots of vedic literature seems to be originated from Garhwal because the Garhwali language has a lot of words common with sanskrit .The work place of vedic Rishis are the prominent pilgrim places in Garhwal specially in chamoli like Atrimuni Ashram in Anusuya about 25 km. from chamoli  town and work place of Kashyap Rishi at Gandhmadan parwat    near Badrinath. According to Aadi-Puran vedviyas scripted the story of Mahabhrat in Vyas Gufa near Badrinath.  Pandukeshwar a small village situated on the Rishikesh Badrinath high-way from where Badrinath is just 25 km away is regarded as Tapsthali of king Pandu. In Kedar-khand Puran this land is regarded the land of lord Shiva.

The authentic script about the history of Garhwal is found only 6th A.D on word. Some of the oldest example of there are the trishul in Gopeshwar, lalitsur in Pandukeshwar .The Narvaman rock script in siroli the chand pur Gari rock script by king Kankpal authentitcates  the history and culture of Garhwal.

Some Historian and scientist believe that this land is origin of Arya race. It is believed that about 300B.C. Khasa invaded Garhwal through Kashmir Nepal and Kuman. A conflict grew due to this invasion a conflict took place between these outsiders and natives .The natives for their protection builded small forts called “Garhi’’. Later on Khasa defeated the native totally and captublack the forts.

After Khasa, Kshatiya invaded this land and defeated Khasa accomplished their regime. They confined Garhwal of hundblacks of Garhi in to fifty-two Garhi only. One kantura  vashudev general of kshatriya established his regime on the northern border of garhwal and founded his capital  in joshimath then Kartikeypur vashudev katyuri was the founder of katyura dynasty  in Garhwal and they reign Garhwal over hundblacks of years in this period of katyuri regime Aadi-Guru Sankaracharya visited garhwal and established Jyotrimath which is one of the four famous Peeths established by Aadi-Guru Sankaracharya. In Bharat varsh other these are Dwarika , Puri and Srinagar. He also reinstated idol of lord Badrinath in Badrinath, before this the idol of Badrinath was hidden in Narad-Kund by the fear of Budhas. After this ethicist of vaidic cult started to pilgrim Badrinath.

According to Pt.Harikrishna Raturi king Bhanu pratap was the first ruler of Panwar dynasty in garhwal who founded chanpur-Garhi as his capital. This was is strongest Garh for the fifty- two garhs of garhwal.

The devastating earthquake of 8th September 1803 weakened the economic and administrative set up of Garhwal state. Taking advantage of the situation Gorkhas attacked Garhwal under the command of Amar Singh Thapa and Hastidal Chanturia. They established there reign over half of the Garhwal in 1804 up to 1815 this region remain under Gorkha rule

Mean while the king of Panwar dynasty Raja Sudarshan Shah contacted east India Company and soughted help. With the help of British he defected Gorkas and merged the eastern part of Alaknanda and Mandakani along with the capital srinagar in British Garhwal from that time this region was known as British Garhwal and the capital of Garhwal was set up at Tehri instead of Srinagar. After the death of Sudarshan Shah Bhawani Shah succeeded him, who died in 1871 and was succeeded by his elder son Pratap Shah. Pratap Shah ascended the throne of Tehri at the age of 21 only. He was the founder of Pratap Nagar. He also tried to improve the forest, judicial and police administration. During his rule several public uprisings took place in the state. He died in 1886.

Kirti Shah  at the time of his father’s death was still in his adolescence, so his mother Rajmata Guleri appointed Vikram Singh as the regent . But after sometime she herself took over administration. Kirti Shah took over charge of the state in 1892. His rule saw a marked improvement in the functioning of courts, forest and other departments. He is said to have invented typewriter for Hindi but gave the copy write to a company. The religious inclination of Kirti Shah is aptly proved by the fact that he organized a religious conference of the followers of different religion at Tehri. He died on 25th April 1913.

Narendra Shah the successor of Kirti Shah was again a minor at the time of succession. Thus, during the initial years the state administration was looked after by a Regency under the presidency of his mother. During the War period(1939-42) Tehri state supplied a huge amount of wood to the Britishers while the king himself offeblack his services for them during the first world war. Some of his achievement were developing the new township of Narendra Nagar, construction of Kirti Nagar, Tehri , Muni ki Reti. He died on 22nd September 1950 in a car accident but had already relinquished the throne in favour of his son Manvendra Shah on 26th May 1946. The later ruled the state from 1946 till the state was merged with the Indian Union in August 1949.

The newly crated Rudraprayag District was part of three district Chamoli,Pauri and Tehri. On 16th September 1997 Rudraprayag District was carved out from whole of Augustmuni & Ukhimath block and part of Pokhri & Karnprayag block from Chamoli , part of Jakholi and Kirtinagar block from Tehri District, part of Khirsu block from Pauri.

Rudraprayag, carved as a seperate revenue district in 1997 . The geographical area of the District is around 2328 sq.kms.

Geology

The geology of the region shows that the Himalayas are the young mountains in the world. During early Mesozoic times, or the secondary geological period, the land mass now coveblack by them was occupied by the great geosynclinal Tethys sea . The probable date of the commencement of the elevation of the Himalayas is about the close of the Mesozoic period, but the unraveling of the story of their structure has only just begin, and in many cases no dating of the rocks is yet possible, though they include ancient and relatively recent crystalline intrusive, rocks and sediments allied to the peninsular part of India . The section of the range in the district is deeply cut into by the headwaters of the Alaknanda river, this trunk stream seeming to have reached a latter stage of development than its tributaries. This much, however, is known that there has been intense metamorphosis. In some parts uplift has been considerable since the mid-pleistocene period, in others there are great stretches of high but subdued topography and elsewhere there are the deepest gorges.

MINERALS

The minerals that are found in the district are the following-

 Asbestos - This is of the amosite variety and can be used for the production of asbestos, cement bricks, laboratory asbestos sheet and paper, but is not consideblack to be of economic importance.

Magnestic - This is of an average quality is crystalline in nature, and is found associated with crystalline dolomites and sometimes with soapstone. The Magnesium carbonate found here is also of average quality and its mineralisation has also been reported to occur in the district.

Soapstone or Steatite - This white saponaceous stone resembling pipe clay is obtained in as lenticular body and is associated with mineral pyrites, which adds a olor to it, and in places with magnesite. it can be mined for use as filler in soap and in the cosmetic industries. In the past various utensils were made of it which, when polished, had the appearance of marble.

Copper - The copper mines in the district are extensive and of reputed during the period of Hindus and The Gorkhas rules. All the rich mines have since being exhausted and at present they do not offer a fair field for the employment of capital.

Iron - Small and sporadic occurrence of iron areknown to occur in several parts of district but are of hardly any economic important. Iron ore, rich in haematite, and magnetic ore, with haematite and siderite, also occur in the district.

Graphite - In the past this mineral, also known as plumbago, found mostly in patti Lohba, was used as a dye but no large deposits have been noticed for a long time.

Gypsum - This mineral is found on the bank of some river and was used in the past for the manufacture of aucers and bowls .when ground to a fine powder it is known as Plaster of Paris and can be used for a number of purposes.

Lead - Deposits of this metal were fairly numerous in the past but it is found in somewhat inaccessible places and has long since ceased  to be worked.

Slate - This dense, fine grained metamorphic rock, which is produced from a fine clay, can be split into thin, smooth plates and is quarried throughout the district. It is suitable for roofing purposes, the thindarkblack slates being somewhat inferior in quality.

Building Stone - Stone which can be used for building purposes is available in most parts of the district. Sand stone is found in abundance in the lower hills. Gneiss and chlorite schists which are available throughout the district are frequently used for building purposes.

Sulphur - This yellow mineral, also known as brimstone is found in the district as green sulphate of iron and is obtainable from iron pyrites and copper nes, its presence being characterised by a small as of rotten eggs. Sulphur springs also occur in many parts in the district.Bitumen - The brownish white natural sulphate of alumina known as Shilajit is found in rocks at a fairly high altitude and occur in small lumps which generally have an admixture of black sand and micaceous stone embedded in them. It is used in Ayurvedic medicine and during the season when there is an influx of pilgrims, it fetches good income to those who deal in it.  Some other minerals found in the district are Antimony, Arsenic, Lignite or Brown Marble, Mica and silver.Physiographically the district, which lies in a region of tectonic or folded and overthrust mountain chains, has strata are structurally marked by complex folds, reverse faults, overthrusts and nappes of great dimensions, all these as well as frequent earthquake of varying intensity give region to believe that theregion is still unstable. Although any movement or tremor of the earths crust in the district is not produced by volcanic activity, the Chaukhamba peak a pair to be the crater of an extinct volcano.

CLIMATE
As the elevation of the district ranges from 800 mts. to 8000 mts above see level the climate of the district very largely depend on altitude. The winter season is from about mid November to March. As most of the region is situated on the southern slops of the outer Himalayas, monsoon currents can enter through the valley, the rainfall being heaviest in the monsoon from June to September.

Rainfall -
Most of the rainfall occur during the period June to September when 70 to 80 percent of the annual precipitation is accounted for in the southern half of the district and 55 to 65 percent in the northern half. The effectiveness of the rains is, among others, related to low temperature which means less evapo-transpiration and forest or vegetation cover. However, the effectiveness is neither uniform nor even positive in areas where either the vegetational cover is poor or / and has steep slops or the soils have been so denuded that their moisture absorption capacity has become marginal.


Temperature
-
The details of temperature recorded at the meteorological observatories in the district show that the highest temperature was 340C and lowest 00C. January is the coldest month after which the temperature begin to rise till June or July. temperature vary with elevation. During the winter cold waves in the wake of western disturbances may cause temperature to fall appreciably. Snow accumulation in valleys is considerable.
Humidity - The relative humidity is high during monsoon season, generally exceeding 70% on the average. The driest part of the year is the pre monsoon period when the humidity may drop to 35% during the afternoon. During the winter months humidity increases toward the afternoon at certain high stations.

Cloudiness - Skies are heavily clouded during the monsoon months and for short spells when the region is affected by the passage of western disturbances. During the rest of the year the skies are generally clear to lightly  clouded.

Winds - Owing to the nature of terrain local affect are pronounced and when the general prevailing winds not too strong to mask these effect, there is a tendency for diurnal reversal of winds, the flow being anabatic during the day and katabatic at night, the latter being of considerable force.

RIVER SYSTEM                             

The river Mandakini, which is the most important river coming down from the slopes of Kedarnath peak, joins the Alaknanda (the alaknanda originates at a height of 3641 metres below Balakun peak 16 kms. upstream fromadrinath.) at Rudraprayag. The river actually originates from the springs fed by melting snow of Charabari glacier about one km above Kedarnath emple. Mandakini is itself fed by Vasukiganga, which meets it at Sonprayag 16 km down-stream from Kedarnath.

The fact is that the main river of the Himalaya are older than the mountains they traverse. This is why they flow right across the axis of the ranges through deep gorges carved out by the river themselves. All the rivers of the district are snow fed.

As the water levels of the rivers are much below the arable land levels, the rivers cannot be generally used for irrigation purposes.

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