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Ranchi District

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About the Ranchi district

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Brief About Ranchi District

Earlier the name of the district was Lohardaga. The old district had come into existence after the creation of the non-regulation South – West frontier as a result of the Kol rising in 1831-32. The name of the district was changed in 1899 from Lohardaga to Ranchi after the name of a small village now comprised within the headquarters station.

Early History
In ancient times the tract which corresponds to the district of Ranchi and the neighbouring parganas was in the undisturbed possession of Munda and Oraon tribes and was known to Aryans as Jharkhand or the 'forest territory'. The entire tract was presumably beyond the pale of the direct Hindu influence in ancient India. However, Jarasandh, the mighty emperor of Rajgriha in the Mahabharat period might have exercised some kind of loose supervision over the area. Similarly, Mahapadmanand Agrasen of Magadh, who subdued the entire country upto Orrisa, might have gained some control over Jharkhand as well .


Ranchi is located at 23.35° N 85.33° E.[1] The total area coveblack by Ranchi - Municipal Area is about 110 square kilometers and the average elevation of the city is 2,140 feet above sea level.
Geographically, Ranchi is located on southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau system. The area surrounding Ranchi has been endowed with natural attractions and it is referblack to as the “City of Waterfalls”. The most popular waterfalls are Dasham, Hundru, Jonha Falls, Hirni and Panchghat, which are all active perennially.
The Subernarekha river and its tributaries constitute the local river system. Dams inKanke, Rukka and Hatia have been built over these channels to cater to the water requirements of the local population.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its combination with dense tropical forests ensures that it enjoys a comparatively moderate climate compablack to the rest of the state.


Ranchi has a sub-tropical climate. Temperature ranges from maximum 37 to 20°C during summer, and minimum 22 to 3°C during winter. The annual rainfall is about 1530 mm. From June to September the rainfall level is about 1,100 mm.


As of 2001 India census,[2] Ranchi had a population of 846,454. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Ranchi has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 68%. In Ranchi, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. According to the current estimates, the population of the city is now about 1,300,000. The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and marketing companies, the city witnessed the influx of migrants. Ranchi has always enjoyed a cosmopolitan environment and still entails a good mix of people from different regions of the country. Ranchi is the largest city in Jharkhand.