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Patna District

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About the Patna district

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Brief About Patna District
The history and tradition of Patna go back to the earliest dawn of civilization. The original name of Patna was Pataliputra or Patalipattan and its history makes a start from the century 600 B.C. Patna covers area of 42 sq km. The name Patna has undergone many changes at its earliest stages like Pataligram, Kusumpur, Patliputra, Azimabad, etc., ultimately terminating to the present one. Chandragupta Maurya made it his capital in the 4th century A.D. Thereafter the city lost its importance until Sherkhan Suri rose into power in the early 16th century A.D. Another version that comes to focus is that there existed a village named Pattan or Patthan, which later turned into Patna.It has been said that Pataliputra was founded by Ajatashatru. Patna, therefore, has become inextricably bound up with the ancient Pataliputra. The ancient village was named ‘Patali’ and the word ‘Pattan’ was added to it. Greek history mentions ‘Palibothra’ which perhaps is Pataliputra itself......

History of Patna .....Ajatashatru had to adopt certain security measures in order to protect Patna from the repeated Lichchavi invasions. He had got a natural riverine fort protected by three rivers. Ajatashatru’s son had moved his capital from Rajagriha to Pataliputra and this status was maintained during the reign of the Mauryas and the Guptas. Ashoka the Great, administered his empire from here. Chandragupta Maurya and Samudragupta , valliant warriors, they took Pataliputra as their capital. It was from here Chahandragupta sent forth his army to fight the Greeks of the western frontier and Chandragupta Vikramaditya repelled the Shakas and the Huns from here. It was there that the Greek ambassador Megasthenes stayed during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya. The famous traveler Fa-Hien in the 3rd century and Hiuen-Tsang in the 7th century inspected the city. Many noted scholars like Kautilya stayed here and works like ‘Arthashastra’ were written from this place. This city was the fountainhead of the spring of knowledge and wisdom in ancient times. Prince Azim-us-Shan, the grandson of Aurangzeb came as the Governor of Patna in 1703. Earlier than that Sher Shah had removed his capital from Biharsharif to Patna. It was prince Azim-us-Shan who tried to turn Patna into a beautiful city and it was he who gave it the name ‘Azimabad’. The common people however went on calling it ‘Patna’. The old Patna or the modern Patna City had at one time a wall all round, the remains of which can still be seen at the entrance of old Patna.

Geographical and Physical features :

The district can be divided into two natural comprising :- A narrow strip of somewhat high land about 8 kms. in width along the southern bank of the Ganges having very fertile soil. The Site Of Ganga Alluvial fertlie plains in the remaining portions. After creation of the new district of Patna does not contain any hilly region. It has an entirely alluvial and flat region. The land in the district is too fertile to be left for wild growth. The district is devoid of any forest wealth of consequences. The alluvial text of land yields rice, sugarcane and other foodgrains. The area under cultivation is studded with mango orchads and bamboo clumps. In the fields adjoining the Ganges weeds such as ammannia, citriculari, hygrophile and sesbania grow. But palmyra and date palm and mango orchards are found near habitations. Dry shrub jungles are sometimes seen in the villages away from the rivers. Trees commonly met with are bel, siris, jack fruits and the red cotton tree. \

Location and Area :

The district lies virtually in the heart of the South Bihar Plain. The city of Patna, besides being the headquarters and the state capital since 1911. The district is bounded on the north by the Ganges, beyond which lie the district of Saran, Vaishali, Samastipur and Begusarai. To the east lie the district of Lakhisarai and Nalanda and in the south the district of Jahanabad. Patna is separated from Bhojpur district on its west by river sone. The district is named after its principal city, Patna. Various legends exist regarding its origin. The most popular legend ascribes it to a prince named Putraka, who created it with a stroke of his magic staff and named it in honour of his wife, the princess Patali. It is also said that originally Pataliputra was a village known as Pataligram which appears to have been derived from 'Patali' or 'Trumpet flower'. It was called Palibhotra by Megasthanes. It is, however, generally accepted that Patna stands on the site of the ancient metropolis of Patna or Patliputra. Total area of the district is 3202 sq km. The district headquarter is located at Patna.

Towns, Villages and Amenities

The district is at present comprises of 5 sub-divisions, 16 Community Devlopment Blocks. It has 13 towns and 1428 villages(1248 inhabited villages and 144 uninhabited villages). The urban population of the district as percentage of total population in the census year 1981 and 1991 is indicated below. It also shows the sex ratio(females per 1000 males) and density(population per sq. km) in the urban population of the district:- District Urban population as% of total population Sex ratio 1991 (Females per 1000 males) Density (population per sq. km) Patna 1981 1991 Total Rural Urban 1132 37.12 37.96 868 886 839 Amenities - No.(with percentage) of villages having one/more amenities in the district as per 1991 census is given below:- Sl No. Amenities No. Of inhabited villages Percentage 1. 2 3 . 4 5 6 7. 8. Education Medical Drinking Water Post & Telegraph Market / Hat Communications Approach by Pucca Rd. Power Supply 1199 535 1284 315 86 350 519 1081 93.38 41.67 100.00 24.53 6.70 27.26 40.42 84.19